YouTube to let parents choose what their kids can watch – This is how

YouTube to let parents choose what their kids can watch - This is how

YouTube is launching a “supervised” version, which is essentially a middle-ground between YouTube Kids and the main site. This is to let parents offer an age-appropriate YouTube experience to children who outgrow the content in YouTube Kids.

The new supervised mode will be available to children over 13, and will come with content settings and limited features. 

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Kneeling during the National Anthem: Top 3 Pros and Cons

Kneeling during the National Anthem: Top 3 Pros and Cons

The current debate over kneeling or sitting in protest during the national anthem was ignited by Colin Kaepernick in 2016 and has escalated to become a nationally divisive issue. San Francisco 49ers quarterback Colin Kaepernick first refused to stand during “The Star-Spangled Banner” on Aug. 26, 2016 to protest racial injustice and police brutality in the United States. Since that time, many other professional football players, [7] high school athletes, and [8] professional athletes in other sports [9] have refused to stand for the national anthem. These protests have generated controversy and sparked a public conversation about the protesters’ messages and how they’ve chosen to deliver them.

Colin Kaepernick (in number seven jersey) and teammate Eric Reid kneel during the national anthem on Sep. 1, 2016.
Source: Josh Levin, “Colin Kaepernick’s Protest Is Working,”, Sep. 12, 2016

People who support refusing to stand for the national anthem argue that athletes are justified in using their celebrity status to bring attention to important issues, and that refusing to stand for the national anthem is an appropriate and effective method of peaceful protest. People who disagree argue that football games are an inappropriate place to engage in political protest, and that not standing for the national anthem shows disrespect for the country and those who proudly support it, some with their lives.

Is Kneeling during the National Anthem an Appropriate Form of Protest?

Pro 1

When one believes the United States is not living up to its ideals of freedom, liberty, and justice for all, kneeling during the national anthem is appropriate and justified.

Colin Kaepernick said, “I’m not going to stand up to show pride in a flag for a country that oppresses black people and people of color… To me, this is bigger than football and it would be selfish on my part to look the other way. There are bodies in the street and people getting paid leave and getting away with murder.” Many other athletes have since refused to stand for the national anthem for similar reasons. Denver Broncos linebacker Brandon Marshall, who also has knelt during the national anthem, said, “the message is I’m against social injustice… I’m not against the military or police or America at all.” NASCAR official and Army veteran Kirk Price, who kneeled during the anthem at a June 2020 race, stated, “I fully respect the flag… That’s not what the issue is here. The issue is African Americans being oppressed for so long under the flag… But to be honest with you, I know what the flag stands for and I know about Black people being oppressed because I am one.”

Pro 2

When a national figure such as an NFL player kneels during the national anthem, it shocks people into paying attention and generates conversation.

Many people were shocked and offended when Colin Kaepernick refused to stand for “The Star-Spangled Banner,” and the resulting debate has continued as additional players joined the protest. NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell originally disagreed with those actions, but later praised what he called a movement from protest to progress: “I truly respect our players wanting to speak out and change the community… We want them to use that voice.” Social media has given a voice to strong opinions on both sides, including members of the armed forces who express support Kaepernick’s right to protest by posting under the hashtag #VeteransForKaepernick.

Pro 3

Kneeling during the national anthem is a legal form of peaceful protest, which is a First Amendment right.

President Obama said Kaepernick was “exercising his constitutional right to make a statement. I think there’s a long history of sports figures doing so.” The San Francisco 49ers said in a statement, “In respecting such American principles as freedom of religion and freedom of expression, we recognize the right of an individual to choose and participate, or not, in our celebration of the national anthem.” A letter signed by 35 US veterans stated that “Far from disrespecting our troops, there is no finer form of appreciation for our sacrifice than for Americans to enthusiastically exercise their freedom of speech.”

Con 1

Kneeling during the national anthem shows disrespect for the flag and members of the armed forces.

The national anthem pays respect to the people who have risked their lives, been injured, or died defending the United States. Carole Isham, a great-great-great-granddaughter of the writer of the national anthem (Francis Scott Key) stated that “it just blows my mind that somebody like (Kaepernick) would do what he does to dishonor the flag of this country and the national anthem when we have young men and women overseas fighting for this country, people that have died for this country.” Drew Brees, New Orleans Saints quarterback, supported Kaepernick’s message but disagreed with the delivery: “[I]t’s an oxymoron that you’re sitting down, disrespecting that flag that has given you the freedom to speak out.” Brees reiterated his position on June 3, 2020 in the wake of the George Floyd killing. However, in light of the backlash that followed, Brees retracted his statement. In reaction, on June 5, 2020, President Trump tweeted, “OLD GLORY is to be revered, cherished, and flown high… “We should be standing up straight and tall, ideally with a salute, or a hand on heart. There are other things you can protest, but not our Great American Flag – NO KNEELING!”

Con 2

Kneeling during the national anthem is an ineffective and counterproductive way to promote a cause.

Clemson University football coach Dabo Swinney said in a press conference: “I don’t think it’s good to be a distraction to your team. I don’t think it’s good to use your team as the platform.” President Obama expressed concern that not standing for the national anthem can get in the way of the message: “As a general matter, when it comes to the flag the national anthem and the meaning that holds for our men and women in uniform and those who’ve fought for us — that is a tough thing for them to get past to then hear what his [Kaepernick’s] deeper concerns are.” Malcolm Jenkins, safety for the Philadelphia Eagles, supported Kaepernick’s message but said, “My grandfather served [in the military]. And this is a country that I love. So, me not standing for the national anthem isn’t really going to get me the results that I want.”

Con 3

Kneeling during the national anthem angers many and sows division in our country.

Kaepernick and others who have refused to stand for the national anthem have caused division among their teams, their fans, and across the country. The Santa Clara police union hinted they would boycott providing security at games after Kaepernick revealed his reasons for protesting the national anthem and wore socks depicting pigs in police uniforms. Fans have been burning Kaepernick’s jersey to show their distaste for his actions. One video of a jersey on fire posted on Facebook was captioned, “He says he’s oppressed making $126 million. Well, Colin, here’s my salute to you.”

The 2017 NFL pre-season began with black players from the Seattle Seahawks, Oakland Raiders, and Philadelphia Eagles kneeling or sitting during the anthem with support of white teammates. [20][21] On Aug. 21, 2017, twelve Cleveland Browns players knelt in a prayer circle during the national anthem with at least four other players standing with hands on the kneeling players’ shoulders in solidarity, the largest group of players to take a knee during the anthem to date. Jabrill Peppers, a rookie safety, said of the protest, “There’s a lot of racial and social injustices in the world that are going on right now. We just decided to take a knee and pray for the people who have been affected and just pray for the world in general… We were not trying to disrespect the flag or be a distraction to the team, but as men we thought we had the right to stand up for what we believed in, and we demonstrated that.” [21] Seth DeValve, a tight end for the Browns and the first white NFL player to kneel for the anthem, stated, “The United States is the greatest country in the world. And it is because it provides opportunities to its citizens that no other country does. The issue is that it doesn’t provide equal opportunity to everybody, and I wanted to support my African-American teammates today who wanted to take a knee. We wanted to draw attention to the fact that there’s things in this country that still need to change.” [20]

Some Cleveland Browns fans expressed their dissatisfaction on the team’s Facebook page. One commenter posted, “Pray before or pray after. Taking a knee during the National Anthem these days screams disrespect for our Flag, Our Country and our troops. My son and the entire armed forces deserve better than that.” [22]

Kneeling during the National Anthem: Top 3 Pros and Cons
Twelve Cleveland Browns players kneel in prayer during the national anthem on Aug. 21, 2017, with the support of four other players who stood.
Source: Satchel Price, “Cleveland Browns Players Kneel During National Anthem,”, Aug. 22, 2017

On Friday, Sep. 22, 2017, President Donald Trump stated his opposition to NFL players kneeling during the anthem: “Wouldn’t you love to see one of these NFL owners, when somebody disrespects our flag, to say ‘Get that son of a bitch off the field right now. Out! He’s fired. He’s fired!” [23] The statement set off a firestorm on both sides of the debate. Roger Goodell, NFL Commissioner, said of Trump’s comments, “Divisive comments like these demonstrate an unfortunate lack of respect for the NFL, our great game and all of our players, and a failure to understand the overwhelming force for good our clubs and players represent in our communities.” [23]

The controversy continued over the weekend as the President continued to tweet about the issue and others contributed opinions for and against kneeling during the anthem. On Sunday, Sep. 24, in London before the first NFL game played after Trump’s comments, at least two dozen Baltimore Ravens and Jacksonville Jaguars players knelt during the American national anthem, while other players, coaches, and staff locked arms, including Shad Khan, who is the only Pakistani-American Muslim NFL team owner. [24] Throughout the day, some players, coaches, owners, and other staff kneeled or linked arms from every team except the Carolina Panthers. The Pittsburgh Steelers chose to remain in the locker room during the anthem, though offensive tackle and Army Ranger veteran Alejandro Villanueva stood at the entrance to the field alone, for which he has since apologized. [27] Both the Seattle Seahawks and Tennessee Titans teams stayed in their locker rooms before their game, leaving the field mostly empty during the anthem. The Seahawks stated, “As a team, we have decided we will not participate in the national anthem. We will not stand for the injustice that has plagued people of color in this country. Out of love for our country and in honor of the sacrifices made on our behalf, we unite to oppose those that would deny our most basic freedoms.” [25]

The controversy has jumped to other sports as every player on WNBA’s Indiana Fever knelt on Friday, Sep. 22 (though WNBA players have been kneeling for months); Oakland A’s catcher Bruce Maxwell kneeled on Saturday becoming the first MLB player to do so; and Joel Ward, of the NHL’s San Jose Sharks, said he would not rule out kneeling. USA soccer’s Megan Rapinoe knelt during the anthem in 2016, prompting the US Soccer Federation to issue Policy 604-1, ordering all players to stand during the anthem. [28][29][30][31][35]

The country was still debating the issue well into the week, with Trump tweeting throughout, including on Sep. 26: “The NFL has all sort of rules and regulations. The only way out for them is to set a rule that you can’t kneel during our National Anthem!” [26]

On May 23, 2018, the NFL announced that all 32 team owners agreed that all players and staff on the field shall “stand and show respect for the flag and the Anthem” or face “appropriate discipline.” However, all players will no longer be required to be on the field during the anthem and may wait off field or in the locker room. [32][33] The new rules were adopted without input from the players’ union. [33] On July 20, 2018, the NFL and the NFL Players Association (NFLPA) issued a joint statement putting the anthem policy on hold until the two organizations come to an agreement. [34]

During the nationwide Black Lives Matter protests following the death of George Floyd, official league positions on kneeling began to change. On June 5, 2020, NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell stated, “We, the National Football League, condemn racism and the systematic oppression of black people. We, the National Football League, admit we were wrong for not listening to NFL players earlier and encourage all players to speak out and peacefully protest.” [39] Before the June 7, 2020 race, NASCAR lifted the guidelines that all team members must stand during the anthem, allowing NASCAR official Kirk Price to kneel during the anthem. [40] On June 10, 2020, the US Soccer Federation rescinded the league’s requirement that players stand during the Black Lives Matter protests following the death of George Floyd. The US Soccer Federation stated, “It has become clear that this policy was wrong and detracted from the important message of Black Lives Matter.” [35] In the wake of the 2020 killing of George Floyd and the protests that followed, 52% of Americans stated it was “OK for NFL players to kneel during the National Anthem to protest the police killing of African Americans.” [41]

Kneeling during the National Anthem: Top 3 Pros and Cons
Indiana Fever players kneel during the national anthem before their Sep. 22, 2017 WNBA playoff game against the Phoenix Mercury.
Source: Stephen Douglas, “Indiana Fever Kneel for National Anthem before WNBA Playoff Game,”, Sep. 21, 2017

Discussion Questions

1.Should professional athletes be allowed to kneel during the national anthem in protest? Why or why not?

2. Should student athletes be allowed to kneel during the national anthem in protest? Why or why not?

3. What forms of protest are acceptable in which venues? Which are not acceptable? Explain your answers.

Take Action

1. Explore “The Purpose and Power of Protest” with the Anti-Defamation League.

2. Delve into the Albert Einstein Institution’s list, “198 Methods of Nonviolent Action.”

3. Consider Marc A. Thiessen’s opinion that kneeling during the anthem is a protest against America.

4. Push for the position and policies you support by writing US national senators and representatives.


1. Steve Wyche, “Colin Kaepernick Explains Why He Sat During National Anthem,”, Aug. 27, 2016
2. Telegraph Sport, “NFL Player Brandon Marshall Gets Dropped by Sponsor for Anthem Protest,”, Sep. 10, 2016
3. Athena Jones and Tom LoBianco, “Obama: Colin Kaepernick ‘Exercising Constitutional Right,'”, Sep. 5, 2016
4. Bria N. Felicien, “Clemson Professor Writes Open Letter to Dabo Swinney,”, Sep. 14, 2016
5. Jennifer Lee Chan, “#VeteransForKaepernick,”, Aug. 31, 2016
6. Democracy Now!, “More NFL Players Join Colin Kaepernick In National Anthem Protest,”, Sep. 9, 2016
7. Telesur, “Kaepernick Kneels Again, This Time on Monday Night Football,”, Sep. 12, 2016
8. Tessa Berenson, “Entire San Francisco High School Football Team Kneels for National Anthem,”, Sep. 16, 2016
9. Nunzio Ingrassia, “Athletes Who Have Joined Colin Kaepernick’s National Anthem Protest,”, Sep. 12, 2016
10. CNN, “US Navy Sailor Sits During National Anthem,”, Sep. 9, 2016
11. Zuri Davis, “Ben Carson Explained Why He Thinks Colin Kaepernick Was Wrong to Sit through the National Anthem,”, Aug. 28, 2016
12. Veterans for Kaepernick, “An Open Letter of Support for Colin Kaepernick from American Military Veterans,”, Sep. 2, 2016
13. Josh Peter, “Descendant of National Anthem Songwriter Rips Colin Kaepernick,”, Sep. 15, 2016
14. CSN Philly, “Police Union: Officers May Boycott 49ers over Colin Kaepernick,”, Sep. 3, 2016
15. Tom Pelissero, “Vikings’ Alex Boone Rips Ex-Teammate Colin Kaepernick for Lack of Respect,”, Aug. 29, 2016
16. Tom Pelissero, “Roger Goodell Praises Player Demonstrations for Going from ‘Protests to Progress,'”, Sep. 19, 2016
17. Cindy Boren, “Colin Kaepernick Protest Has 49ers Fans Burning Their Jerseys,”, Aug. 28, 2016
18. Mike Triplett, “Drew Brees ‘Wholeheartedly’ Disagrees with Colin Kaepernick’s Method of Protest,”, Aug. 29, 2016
19. Ryan Wilson, “NFL Players: There Are Better Ways for Kaepernick to Affect Change,”, Aug. 29, 2016
20. Satchel Price, “Cleveland Browns Players Kneel During National Anthem,”, Aug. 22, 2017
21. Pat McManamon, “12 Browns Players Kneel in Prayer over Racial, Social Injustice,”, Aug. 22, 2017
22. Courtney Danser, “Angry Fans Take to Cleveland Browns Facebook Page over National Anthem Protest,” News 5 Cleveland website, Aug. 22, 2017
23. Brian Armen Graham, “Donald Trump Blasts NFL Anthem Protesters: ‘Get That Son of a Bitch off the Field,'”, Sep. 23, 2017
24. CNN Wires, “Jaguars, Ravens Kneel During Anthem as NFL Sunday Kicks Off,”, Sep. 24, 2017
25. Brian Hoffman and Lance Booth, “What Every N.F.L. Team Did During the National Anthem on Sunday,”, Sep. 24, 2017
26. Donald Trump, Twitter post,, Sep. 26, 2017
27. Tribune Media Wire, “Alejandro Villanueva Apologizes for Throwing Steeler Teammates ‘under the Bus,'”, Sep. 25, 2017
28. Susan Slusser, “A’s Bruce Maxwell First MLB Player to Kneel for Anthem,”, Sep. 25, 2017
29. Chuck Shulman, “WNBA’s Indiana Fever Players Kneel Together During National Anthem,”, Sep. 22, 2016
30. Satchel Price, “Joel Ward Considers Becoming 1st NHL Player to Kneel During National Anthem,”, Sep. 27, 2017
31. Tom Ziller and Mike Prada, “The WNBA Has Been at the Forefront of Protesting Racial Injustice,”, Sep. 24, 2017
32. NFL Communications, “Statement from NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell,”, May 23, 2018
33. Victor Mather, “N.F.L. Teams Will Be Fined for Players’ Anthem Kneeling,”, May 23, 2018
34. Motez Bishara, “NFL Anthem Policy Shelved as Talks with Players Association Continue,”, July 20, 2018
35. Vanessa Romo, “U.S. Soccer Lifts Ban on Kneeling during National Anthem,”, June 10, 2020
36. Chris Cwik, “Drew Brees Addresses NFL Players Kneeling in 2020: ‘I Will Never Agree with Anybody Disrespecting the Flag,'”, June 3, 2020
37. Alicia Victoria Lozano and Gwen Aviles, “Drew Brees to Trump: ‘We Must Stop Talking about the Flag,”, June 5, 2020
38. Donald Trump,, June 5, 2020
39. Alicia Victoria Lozano, “Goodell Says NFL Was Wrong Not to Encourage Players to Protest Peacefully,”, June 5, 2020
40. Dustin Long, “NASCAR to Allow Peaceful Protests during National Anthem,”, June 10, 2020
41. Jay Busbee, “Yahoo News/YouGov Poll: Majority of Americans Now Support NFL Players’ Right to Protest,”, June 11, 2020
42. Michelle R. Martinelli, “NASCAR Official Opens up about Taking a Knee for National Anthem, Prayer,”, June 8, 2020

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The best website builder of 2021: Real, in-depth reviews of 40+ services

The best website builder of 2021: Real, in-depth reviews of 40+ services

A modern business simply cannot afford to be without an online presence – and our list of the best website builder options will show you how easy it is to get yourself set up. The best website builders provide organizations with the tools they need to create a first-rate online portal, regardless of the industry they inhabit. Like the best web hosting services, they have become essential to business success in the digital age.

Modern website builders provide a multitude of features tailored to each individual’s or organization’s needs. Some are relatively straightforward affairs that value simplicity above all else, while others come with so many customizable elements that it’s hard to know where to begin. The good thing is, there is such a huge variety of builders available that there is bound to be one that can bring your online vision to life.

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These broadband deals blow everything else out of the water this Boxing Day

These broadband deals blow everything else out of the water this Boxing Day

Yes, Boxing Day is about relaxing, it’s about consuming large amounts of Christmas TV and leftover turkey, and it’s about time with your family…but if you’re the proactive type, it could also be the time to get a perfect internet plan.

Thanks to the Boxing Day sales, a number of broadband deals have come down in price, seen boosts in speeds or been loaded with cash incentives to make them more desirable than ever.

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Sanctuary Cities: Top 3 Pros and Cons

Sanctuary Cities: Top 3 Pros and Cons


  1. Peter Mancina, “In the Spirit of Sanctuary: Sanctuary-City Policy Advocacy and the Production of Sanctuary-Power in San Francisco, California,”, Aug. 2016
  2. Matthew Green and Jessica Carlton, “What Are Sanctuary Cities and How Are They Bracing for Trump’s Proposed Immigration Crackdown?,”, Nov. 17, 2016
  3. Jasmine C. Lee, Rudy Omri, and Julia Preston, “What Are Sanctuary Cities?,”, Sep. 3, 2016
  4. Immigrant Legal Resource Center, “FAQ on Federal Grant Conditions and Cooperation with Immigration Enforcement,”, July 2016
  5. Legal Information Institute, “U.S. Code, Title 8, Chapter 12, Subchapter II, Part IX, § 1373,” (accessed Nov. 25, 2016)
  6. Bureau of Justice Assistance, “Office of Justice Programs Guidance Regarding Compliance with 8 U.S.C. § 1373,” (accessed Nov. 25, 2016)
  7. Michael John Garcia, “‘Sanctuary Cities’: Legal Issues,”, Jan. 15, 2009
  8. Christina Littlefield, “Sanctuary Cities: How Kathryn Steinle’s Death Intensified the Immigration Debate,”, July 24, 2015
  9. Lee Romney, Cindy Chang, and Joel Rubin, “Fatal Shooting of S.F. Woman Reveals Disconnect between ICE, Local Police; 5-Time Deportee Charged,”, July 6, 2015
  10. Janie Har and Amy Taxin, “San Francisco’s Status as ‘Sanctuary’ Criticized after Slaying,”, July 7, 2015
  11. Jennifer Medina and Jess Bidgood, “Cities Vow to Fight Trump on Immigration, Even If They Lose Millions,”, Nov. 28, 2016
  12. Daryl F. Gates, “Special Order No. 40,”, Nov. 27, 1979
  13. Jessica Vaughan, “Sanctuary Cities Continue to Obstruct Enforcement, Threaten Public Safety,”, Aug. 31, 2016
  14. Heather Mac Donald, “The Illegal-Alien Crime Wave,”, Winter 2004
  15. Josh Harkinson, “Actually, Sanctuary Cities Are Safer,”, July 10, 2015
  16. Nik Theodore, “Insecure Communities: Latino Perceptions of Police Involvement in Immigration Enforcement,”, May 2013
  17. Bettina Boxall, “Violent Crime in California Rose 10% in 2015, State Attorney General Says,”, July 1, 2016
  18. Jessica Vaughan, “Ignoring Detainers, Endangering Communities,”, July 2015
  19. Zoe Lofgren, “Sanctuary Cities Keep Communities Safe,”, July 28, 2015
  20. Bryan Griffith and Jessica M. Vaughan, “Maps: Sanctuary Cities, Counties, and States,”, Apr. 16, 2019
  21. Catherine E. Shoichet, “Florida Just Banned Sanctuary Cities. At Least 11 Other States Have, Too,”, June 14, 2019
  22. Brett Samuels, “Trump: Government Will Start Withholding Funds from Sanctuary Cities after Court Ruling,”, Mar. 5, 2020
  23. Bryan Griffith and Jessica M. Vaughan, “Map: Sanctuary Cities, Counties, and States,”, Mar. 23, 2020
  24. Max Sullivan, “NH Rep. Wants to Ban Sanctuary Cities. He Put the Question on WHS School Ballot, “, Feb. 13, 2020
  25. KJRH News, “Bill Filed to Ban Sanctuary Cities in Oklahoma,”, Jan. 15, 2020
  26. Joshua Nelson, “Georgia Republicans Push Bill to Ban Sanctuary Cities: The President Is 100% Right,”, Feb. 25, 2020
  27. White House, “Remarks by President Trump and Vice President Pence in Roundtable with Industry Executives on the Plan for Opening Up America Again,”, Apr. 29, 2020
  28. Tobias Hoonhout, “Federal Appeals Court Rules Against Trump Admin. Move to Block Funding from Sanctuary Cities,”, May 1, 2020
  29. H.B.C., “What Are Sanctuary Cities?,”, Nov. 22, 2016
  30. Adam Liptak, “Supreme Court Won’t Hear Case on California Sanctuary Law,”, June 15, 2020


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Food delivery: which grocery and meal delivery services have slots right now?

Food delivery: which grocery and meal delivery services have slots right now?

The end of England’s second coronavirus lockdown of the year is now in sight. Throughout November, the population has once again been reliant on grocery deliveries sent to their homes.

At the moment, after taking a look through delivery slots and options available from Tesco, Sainsbury’s, Waitrose, Asda, Iceland and more, we’ve found that availability has stayed generally rather good during the month.

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Insta ‘Live Broadcasts’ can now be 4 hours long

Insta 'Live Broadcasts' can now be 4 hours long

With live streaming of events and occasions being the order of the day, social media platforms are coming up with various features to improve their live stream options.

Keeping in line with this idea, Instagram has now come up with three new updates related to ‘Live’ events. 

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Are DACA and the DREAM Act Good for America?

Are DACA and the DREAM Act Good for America?

Are DACA (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals) and the DREAM Act Good for America?

Pro 1

DACA and the DREAM Act are good for the US economy.

The Center for American Progress stated, “DACA has been unreservedly good for the U.S. economy” and that DACA recipients will “contribute $460.3 billion to the U.S. gross domestic product [GDP] over the next decade—economic growth that would be lost were DACA to be eliminated.” California, which has the most DACA recipients of any state, could see a $11.6 billion decline in GDP if DACA were ended. Texas, which had the second largest DACA population, stood to lose $6.3 billion.

If the Dream Act were passed, it would add $22.7 billion annually to the US GDP, and up to $400 billion over the next decade. Benjamin Harris, MBA, former Chief Economist and Economic Advisor to Vice President Biden, stated: “Individuals eligible for the DACA program tend to be higher-skilled than their ineligible counterparts, simply because the typical DACA-eligible immigrant arrived in the America at age six and was educated in the U.S. Put differently, sending DACA participants back to their home countries would be a waste of billions in human capital already invested in the young immigrants.”

Pro 2

Deporting Dreamers is inhumane and cruel.

Arriving at a median age of six years old, many Dreamers do not remember life in their birth countries, have not met family members in those countries, and do not speak the native language fluently. President Obama, responding to President Trump’s plan to end DACA, stated, “To target these young people is wrong… It is self-defeating – because they want to start new businesses, staff our labs, serve in our military, and otherwise contribute to the country we love. And it is cruel. What if our kid’s science teacher, or our friendly neighbor turns out to be a Dreamer? Where are we supposed to send her? To a country she doesn’t know or remember, with a language she may not even speak?”

Many DACA recipients are well-integrated into families, communities, schools, and workplaces throughout the country. Thiru Vignarajah, JD, former Deputy Attorney of Maryland, stated, “to deport immigrants raised in America since they were children for the supposed sins of their parents is the definition of cruel and unusual punishment — expelling a person to a country they do not know because of a decision they did not make is as spiteful as it is bizarre.”

Pro 3

DACA recipients are vital members of the American workforce and society.

Sen. Dick Durbin (D-IL) said that 900 DACA recipients were serving in the US military and 20,000 were schoolteachers, including 190 Dreamers in the Teach for America program. The Association of American Medical Colleges said in October 2019 that the US health care system would be caught unprepared to fill the void left by deported Dreamers.

In Mar. 2020, lawyers for Dreamers seeking to uphold the program in the Supreme Court wrote, “Healthcare providers on the frontlines of our nation’s fight against COVID-19 rely significantly upon DACA recipients to perform essential work. Approximately 27,000 DACA recipients are healthcare workers—including nurses, dentists, pharmacists, physician assistants, home health aides, technicians, and other staff—and nearly 200 are medical students, residents, and physicians.”

Con 1

DACA and the Dream Act only encourage more illegal immigration.

Congressman Bob Goodlatte (R-VA) said that DACA “encouraged more illegal immigration and contributed to the surge of unaccompanied minors and families seeking to enter the U.S. illegally.” According to Karl Eschbach, PhD, DACA will increase the undocumented population because those who don’t qualify for DACA will stay in the hopes of qualifying eventually, and more people will immigrate assuming coverage by DACA or a similar program.

Rep. Lamar Smith (R-TX) stated, “The Dream Act will only encourage more illegal immigration. One only needs to look at history to see how amnesty has played out in the past. The 1986 amnesty legislation legalized about three million illegal immigrants. But rather than put an end to illegal immigration, the amnesty only encouraged more.” The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) included the legalization of about three million undocumented immigrants. Following the act’s implementation, between 1990 and 2007, the population of unauthorized immigrants in the United States shot up to 500,000 per year, peaking at 12.2 million.

Con 2

Amnesty should not be given to law breakers.

A country fairly enforcing its own laws is not cruel.David Benkoff, MA, Senior Policy Analyst at The Daily Caller noted that Dreamers are “victims of their parents… [and] it’s stunningly callous and cruel that they would knowingly subject their own children to such risks.” Dreamers have already broken the law by crossing the border illegally and remaining in the country without documentation.

The Center for Immigration Studies stated that many Dreamers also commit work-related crimes such as Social Security fraud, forgery, perjury on I-9 employment forms, and falsification of ID cards. Since 2012, 1,500 Dreamers have lost their DACA status because of gang involvement or other criminal activity. Dreamers are only disqualified if they are convicted of a crime, which according to Ronald W. Mortensen, PhD, means “Dreamer gang-bangers, Dreamer identity thieves, Dreamer sexual predators, Dreamers who haven’t paid income taxes, and Dreamers committing a wide range of other crimes all qualify for DACA status as long as they haven’t been convicted of their crimes.”

Con 3

DACA sets a bad precedent for letting presidents circumvent the legislative branch.

President Trump noted in his announcement to rescind DACA that President Obama knew he shouldn’t make immigration policy unilaterally, “and yet that is exactly what he did, making an end-run around Congress and violating the core tenets that sustain our Republic.” US Presidents shouldn’t be able to set legislative policy by executive orders; rather they should seek approval from Congress in accordance with the Constitution.

Elizabeth Murrill, JD, Solicitor General of Louisiana, said, “No matter one’s views on the policy principles motivating DACA, we should all be able to agree that the executive cannot legislate by fiat… The core of DACA’s substantive unlawfulness is its grant of “lawful presence” to hundreds of thousands of aliens whom Congress has declared to be unlawfully present.”

Protestors against DACA
Source: Ed Kilgore, “Trump Administration Comes out for Path to Citizenship, a.k.a. Amnesty, for Dreamers,”, Oct. 3, 2017

What Are DACA and the Dream Act?

The DREAM Act would have implemented similar policies as DACA via legislation instead of a presidential memo. Many versions of the DREAM Act have been introduced by both parties and have failed to pass. An effort was introduced by Senators Lindsey Graham (R-SC) and Dick Durbin (D-IL) on July 20, 2017.

In order to qualify for DACA, the undocumented immigrants are required to meet certain criteria:

  • under 31 years old as of June 15, 2012
  • have come to the United States before their 16th birthday
  • lived in the United States continuously from June 15, 2007 to the present
  • physically present in the United States on June 15, 2012 and at the time of application
  • have come to the United States without documents before June 15, 2012 or have had their lawful status expire as of June 15, 2012
  • currently in school, have graduated from high school or earned a GED, or have been honorably discharged from the Coast Guard or military
  • have not been convicted of a felony or “significant misdemeanors” (such as DUI), or three or more misdemeanors of any kind

Enrollment in the program requires renewal every two years.

Who Are Dreamers?

About 650,000 undocumented immigrants were enrolled in DACA as of Sep. 30, 2019. The majority of Dreamers were born in Mexico (80.2%), followed by El Salvador (3.8%) The top ten countries of origin were rounded out by Guatemala, Honduras, Peru, South Korea, Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, and Argentina. While the majority of Dreamers are from Mexico or Central and South America, many were born in Asia, the Caribbean, Europe, and Africa.

California is home to the most DACA recipients (186,120), including 81,180 who live in the Los Angeles metro area. Texas has the second-most DREAMers (108,730), followed by Illinois (34,330). The average Dreamer is 21 to 25 years old (37.7%), a woman (53%), and not married (76.1%).

A 2019 Marquette Law School poll found that 53% of US adults opposed ending DACA while 37% were in favor of terminating the program. A CNN poll in 2018 found that 84% of respondents believed DACA should continue, allowing Dreamers to remain in the country; 11% thought the program should be stopped and Dreamers should be subject to deportation; and 5% had no opinion.

Are DACA and the DREAM Act Good for America?

Undocumented immigrant boys assemble for medical screenings at a Nogales processing center
Source: Dara Lind, “14 Facts That Help Explain America’s Child-Migrant Crisis,”, July 29, 2014


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  41. John Kruzel, “Supreme Court Blocks Trump Plan to End DACA Program,”, June 18, 2020

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