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Are DACA and the DREAM Act Good for America?

Are DACA and the DREAM Act Good for America?


Are DACA (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals) and the DREAM Act Good for America?

Pro 1

DACA and the DREAM Act are good for the US economy.

The Center for American Progress stated, “DACA has been unreservedly good for the U.S. economy” and that DACA recipients will “contribute $460.3 billion to the U.S. gross domestic product [GDP] over the next decade—economic growth that would be lost were DACA to be eliminated.” California, which has the most DACA recipients of any state, could see a $11.6 billion decline in GDP if DACA were ended. Texas, which had the second largest DACA population, stood to lose $6.3 billion.

If the Dream Act were passed, it would add $22.7 billion annually to the US GDP, and up to $400 billion over the next decade. Benjamin Harris, MBA, former Chief Economist and Economic Advisor to Vice President Biden, stated: “Individuals eligible for the DACA program tend to be higher-skilled than their ineligible counterparts, simply because the typical DACA-eligible immigrant arrived in the America at age six and was educated in the U.S. Put differently, sending DACA participants back to their home countries would be a waste of billions in human capital already invested in the young immigrants.”

Pro 2

Deporting Dreamers is inhumane and cruel.

Arriving at a median age of six years old, many Dreamers do not remember life in their birth countries, have not met family members in those countries, and do not speak the native language fluently. President Obama, responding to President Trump’s plan to end DACA, stated, “To target these young people is wrong… It is self-defeating – because they want to start new businesses, staff our labs, serve in our military, and otherwise contribute to the country we love. And it is cruel. What if our kid’s science teacher, or our friendly neighbor turns out to be a Dreamer? Where are we supposed to send her? To a country she doesn’t know or remember, with a language she may not even speak?”

Many DACA recipients are well-integrated into families, communities, schools, and workplaces throughout the country. Thiru Vignarajah, JD, former Deputy Attorney of Maryland, stated, “to deport immigrants raised in America since they were children for the supposed sins of their parents is the definition of cruel and unusual punishment — expelling a person to a country they do not know because of a decision they did not make is as spiteful as it is bizarre.”

Pro 3

DACA recipients are vital members of the American workforce and society.

Sen. Dick Durbin (D-IL) said that 900 DACA recipients were serving in the US military and 20,000 were schoolteachers, including 190 Dreamers in the Teach for America program. The Association of American Medical Colleges said in October 2019 that the US health care system would be caught unprepared to fill the void left by deported Dreamers.

In Mar. 2020, lawyers for Dreamers seeking to uphold the program in the Supreme Court wrote, “Healthcare providers on the frontlines of our nation’s fight against COVID-19 rely significantly upon DACA recipients to perform essential work. Approximately 27,000 DACA recipients are healthcare workers—including nurses, dentists, pharmacists, physician assistants, home health aides, technicians, and other staff—and nearly 200 are medical students, residents, and physicians.”

Con 1

DACA and the Dream Act only encourage more illegal immigration.

Congressman Bob Goodlatte (R-VA) said that DACA “encouraged more illegal immigration and contributed to the surge of unaccompanied minors and families seeking to enter the U.S. illegally.” According to Karl Eschbach, PhD, DACA will increase the undocumented population because those who don’t qualify for DACA will stay in the hopes of qualifying eventually, and more people will immigrate assuming coverage by DACA or a similar program.

Rep. Lamar Smith (R-TX) stated, “The Dream Act will only encourage more illegal immigration. One only needs to look at history to see how amnesty has played out in the past. The 1986 amnesty legislation legalized about three million illegal immigrants. But rather than put an end to illegal immigration, the amnesty only encouraged more.” The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) included the legalization of about three million undocumented immigrants. Following the act’s implementation, between 1990 and 2007, the population of unauthorized immigrants in the United States shot up to 500,000 per year, peaking at 12.2 million.

Con 2

Amnesty should not be given to law breakers.



A country fairly enforcing its own laws is not cruel.David Benkoff, MA, Senior Policy Analyst at The Daily Caller noted that Dreamers are “victims of their parents… [and] it’s stunningly callous and cruel that they would knowingly subject their own children to such risks.” Dreamers have already broken the law by crossing the border illegally and remaining in the country without documentation.

The Center for Immigration Studies stated that many Dreamers also commit work-related crimes such as Social Security fraud, forgery, perjury on I-9 employment forms, and falsification of ID cards. Since 2012, 1,500 Dreamers have lost their DACA status because of gang involvement or other criminal activity. Dreamers are only disqualified if they are convicted of a crime, which according to Ronald W. Mortensen, PhD, means “Dreamer gang-bangers, Dreamer identity thieves, Dreamer sexual predators, Dreamers who haven’t paid income taxes, and Dreamers committing a wide range of other crimes all qualify for DACA status as long as they haven’t been convicted of their crimes.”

Con 3

DACA sets a bad precedent for letting presidents circumvent the legislative branch.



President Trump noted in his announcement to rescind DACA that President Obama knew he shouldn’t make immigration policy unilaterally, “and yet that is exactly what he did, making an end-run around Congress and violating the core tenets that sustain our Republic.” US Presidents shouldn’t be able to set legislative policy by executive orders; rather they should seek approval from Congress in accordance with the Constitution.

Elizabeth Murrill, JD, Solicitor General of Louisiana, said, “No matter one’s views on the policy principles motivating DACA, we should all be able to agree that the executive cannot legislate by fiat… The core of DACA’s substantive unlawfulness is its grant of “lawful presence” to hundreds of thousands of aliens whom Congress has declared to be unlawfully present.”

Protestors against DACA
Source: Ed Kilgore, “Trump Administration Comes out for Path to Citizenship, a.k.a. Amnesty, for Dreamers,” nymag.com, Oct. 3, 2017

What Are DACA and the Dream Act?

The DREAM Act would have implemented similar policies as DACA via legislation instead of a presidential memo. Many versions of the DREAM Act have been introduced by both parties and have failed to pass. An effort was introduced by Senators Lindsey Graham (R-SC) and Dick Durbin (D-IL) on July 20, 2017.

In order to qualify for DACA, the undocumented immigrants are required to meet certain criteria:

  • under 31 years old as of June 15, 2012
  • have come to the United States before their 16th birthday
  • lived in the United States continuously from June 15, 2007 to the present
  • physically present in the United States on June 15, 2012 and at the time of application
  • have come to the United States without documents before June 15, 2012 or have had their lawful status expire as of June 15, 2012
  • currently in school, have graduated from high school or earned a GED, or have been honorably discharged from the Coast Guard or military
  • have not been convicted of a felony or “significant misdemeanors” (such as DUI), or three or more misdemeanors of any kind

Enrollment in the program requires renewal every two years.

Who Are Dreamers?

About 650,000 undocumented immigrants were enrolled in DACA as of Sep. 30, 2019. The majority of Dreamers were born in Mexico (80.2%), followed by El Salvador (3.8%) The top ten countries of origin were rounded out by Guatemala, Honduras, Peru, South Korea, Brazil, Ecuador, Colombia, and Argentina. While the majority of Dreamers are from Mexico or Central and South America, many were born in Asia, the Caribbean, Europe, and Africa.

California is home to the most DACA recipients (186,120), including 81,180 who live in the Los Angeles metro area. Texas has the second-most DREAMers (108,730), followed by Illinois (34,330). The average Dreamer is 21 to 25 years old (37.7%), a woman (53%), and not married (76.1%).

A 2019 Marquette Law School poll found that 53% of US adults opposed ending DACA while 37% were in favor of terminating the program. A CNN poll in 2018 found that 84% of respondents believed DACA should continue, allowing Dreamers to remain in the country; 11% thought the program should be stopped and Dreamers should be subject to deportation; and 5% had no opinion.

Are DACA and the DREAM Act Good for America?

Undocumented immigrant boys assemble for medical screenings at a Nogales processing center
Source: Dara Lind, “14 Facts That Help Explain America’s Child-Migrant Crisis,” vox.com, July 29, 2014

Footnotes:

  1. Undocumented Student Program, “DACA Information,” undocu.berkeley.edu (accessed Jan. 30, 2018)
  2. Homeland Security, “Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA),” dhs.gov, Jan. 29, 2018
  3. Orrin Hatch, “S.1291 – DREAM Act,” congress.gov, June 20, 2002
  4. Lindsey Graham, “Graham, Durbin Introduce Bipartisan Dream Act to Give Immigrant Students a Path to Citizenship,” lgraham.senate.gov, July 20, 2017
  5. SSRS, “CNN January 2018,” cnn.com, Jan. 19, 2018
  6. Tom K. Wong, et al., “DACA Recipients’ Economic and Educational Gains Continue to Grow,” americanprogress.org, Aug. 28, 2017
  7. Nicole Prchal Svajlenka, Tom Jawetz, and Angie Bautista-Chavez, “A New Threat to DACA Could Cost States Billions of Dollars,” americanprogress.org, July 21, 2017
  8. Fracesca Ortega, Ryan Edwards, and Philip E. Wolgin, “The Economic Benefits of Passing the Dream Act,” americanprogress.org, Sep. 18, 2017
  9. Benjamin Harris, “Why Your Economic Argument against Immigration Is Probably Wrong,” fortune.com, Sep. 11, 2017
  10. Bob Goodlatte, “Goodlatte Statement on Ending Executive Overreach on Immigration,” goodlatte.house.gov, Sep. 5, 2017
  11. Jeh Johnson, “United States Border Patrol Southwest Family Unit Subject and Unaccompanied Alien Children Apprehensions Fiscal Year 2016,” cbp.gov, Oct. 18, 2016
  12. US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Refugee Resettlement, “Unaccompanied Children’s Services,” www.acf.hhs.gov (accessed Jan. 29, 2016)
  13. Karl Eschbach, “Exhibit 14 – Declaration of Karl Eschbach, Ph.D.,” scribd.com, Jan. 6, 2015
  14. Lamar Smith, “DREAM Act Rewards Illegal Immigrants for Law-Breaking,” thehill.com, May 20, 2011
  15. Alicia Parlapiano and Karen Yourish, “A Typical ‘Dreamer’ Lives in Los Angeles, Is from Mexico and Came to the U.S. at 6 Years Old,” nytimes.com, Jan. 23, 2018
  16. Andrew Rafferty, “Obama on DACA: Trump’s Decision to End Program ‘Cruel’ and ‘Wrong,’” nbcnews.com, Sep. 5, 2017
  17. Thiru Vignarajah, “Deporting Dreamers Is as Cruel and Unusual as It Gets,” seattletimes.com, Nov. 12, 2017
  18. David Benkoff, “Let Dreamers Stay – If Their Parents Go,” dailycaller.com, Sep. 4, 2017
  19. Adam Edelman and Kasie Hunt, “Steve King: Dreamers Can ‘Live in the Shadows’ after DACA Ends,” nbcnews.com, Sep. 6, 2017
  20. Ronald W. Mortensen, “DACA: Granting Amnesty to Dreamers Committing Crimes while Abandoning Their Victims,” cis.org, Mar. 10, 2017
  21. Nina Shapiro, “Seattle Judge Won’t Immediately Release ‘Dreamer’ from Detention Center,” seattletimes.com, Feb. 17, 2017
  22. US Citizenship and Immigration Services, “Approximate Active DACA Recipients – Sep. 30, 2019,” uscis.gov, Jan. 14, 2020
  23. Adam Edelman, “Trump Ends DACA Program, No New Applications Accepted,” nbcnews.com, Sep. 5, 2017
  24. Donald Trump, Twitter post, Sep. 5, 2017
  25. Brett Samuels, “Judge Blocks Trump Move to End DACA,” thehill.com, Jan. 9, 2018
  26. Reuters, “Another Judge Blocks Trump Administration from Ending DACA Program,” nbcnews.com, Feb. 13, 2018
  27. Joseph P. Williams, “Supreme Court Doesn’t Act on DACA Appeal,” usnews.com, Feb. 20, 2018
  28. Richard Wolf and Alan Gomez, “Supreme Court Snubs Trump, Keeps DACA Immigration Program in Place for Now,” usatoday.com, Feb. 26, 2018
  29. Pete Wiliams, “In Blow to Trump, Supreme Court Won’t Hear Appeal of DACA Ruling,” nbcnews.com, Feb. 26, 2018
  30. Nina Totenberg, “DACA Recipients Look to Supreme Court for Hope,” npr.org, Nov. 12, 2019
  31. Michael J. Wishnie, et al., “Re: Wolf, et al., v. Batalla Vidal, et al., No. 18-589,” supremecourt.gov, Mar. 27, 2020
  32. Charles Franklin, “New Nationwide Marquette Law School Poll Finds Confidence in U.S. Supreme Court Overall, Though More Pronounced among Conservatives,” law.marquette.edu, Oct. 21, 2019
  33. Jynnah Radford and Luis Noe-Bustamante, “Facts on U.S. Immigrants, 2017,” pewresearch.org, June 3, 2019
  34. Hans Johnson and Laura Hill, “Illegal Immigration,” ppic.org, 2011
  35. White House, “Remarks by President Trump in Meeting with Bipartisan Members of Congress on Immigration,” whitehouse.gov, Jan. 9, 2018
  36. Dick Durban, “Durbin: Let’s Show The American Dream Is Still Alive by Passing the Dream Act,” durbin.senate.gov, Sep. 12, 2017
  37. Adam Liptak, “‘Dreamers’ Tell Supreme Court Ending DACA During Pandemic Would Be ‘Catastrophic’,” nytimes.com, Mar. 27, 2020
  38. Donald Trump, “Statement from President Donald J. Trump,” whitehouse.gov, Sep. 5, 2017
  39. Hans A. von Spakovsky, “It’s Time to End DACA – It’s Unconstitutional Unless Approved by Congress,” foxnews.com, Jan. 23, 2019
  40. Elizabeth Murrill, “Symposium: DACA Is Unlawful,” scotusblog.com, Sep. 13, 2019
  41. John Kruzel, “Supreme Court Blocks Trump Plan to End DACA Program,” thehill.com, June 18, 2020



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Encyclopaedia Britannica Acquires ProCon.org – ProCon.org


Britannica Acquires Leading Non-Partisan Issue-Information Source ProCon.org

  • ProCon.org presents balanced, expert-authored arguments for and against each side of controversial issues
  • It’s a valuable, popular site for teachers and students around the world
  • ProCon.org’s commitment to balance and accuracy strengthens Britannica’s ability to elevate better information in the digital universe
  • ProCon.org’s content will remain free

CHICAGO, May 29, 2020–The Britannica® Group today announced that it has acquired ProCon.org, the country’s leading source for information and research on all sides of the controversial issues of the day.

Serving more than 20 million online users each year, ProCon.org uses professional researchers and upholds rigorous editorial standards to explore more than 80 controversial issues, from gun control, immigration, and the Electoral College to vaping, mandatory school uniforms, and animal dissection as part of school experiments. Schools and teachers in all 50 U.S. states and 94 countries have used the site.

ProCon.org now becomes part of the Britannica product portfolio, and the company will maintain and expand its editorial content, which includes pages with well-researched pro and con arguments on major issues, lesson plans and other resources for teachers, and a collection of videos on critical thinking and a host of hotly debated topics. Britannica will continue serving students, teachers, and curious adults and to provide vital information to voters heading into the 2020 U.S. presidential and congressional elections.

The content at ProCon.org is freely available to the public and will remain so.

Britannica is committed to elevating better information in the digital universe and fighting knowledge dilution, according to Theodore Pappas, executive editor and chief development officer of Britannica and the new director of ProCon.org. Britannica has a host of initiatives, such as the company’s partnership with YouTube, aimed at fighting conspiracy theories and fake news. Taken together, they are making a substantial impact on the quality of the information environment. The ProCon.org acquisition is designed to fit seamlessly alongside these other programs.

“The ProCon format allows readers to get a balanced view of controversial topics, open their minds, cultivate empathy and hone their critical thinking,” said Pappas. “These skills are more important than ever today, in a world awash in questionable information and where sites with balanced views are difficult to find. ProCon.org will help us meet Britannica’s promise to ‘Save time. Learn more. Be Sure.’”

“I can’t think of anything more needed now, in an age of misinformation and intolerance for civil discourse, than critical thinking and a reasoned, balanced approach to understanding the controversial issues of the day, and that’s exactly what students and teachers alike have long found at ProCon.org. Britannica looks forward to furthering this worthy mission, in new and novel ways, for decades to come.”

“ProCon.org and its board of directors are thrilled that Encyclopaedia Britannica will be leading our organization well into the future,” said Steven Markoff, interim CEO and founder of ProCon.org. “Given Britannica’s incredible history of producing high-quality, nonpolitical, unbiased information for the world, and its technical expertise in the digital space, the 200 million readers and thousands of teachers who have relied on ProCon’s work for the past 15 years have much to look forward to with Britannica at its helm.”

About ProCon.org
ProCon.org was founded in 2004 as a nonprofit charity in California, headquartered in Santa Monica. ProCon.org is the country’s leading source for pro, con, and related research on controversial issues. Its mission is to promote critical thinking, education, and informed citizenship by presenting controversial issues in a straightforward, nonpartisan, and primarily pro-con format. By presenting issues in this way, it aims to improve student performance, increase civic engagement, strengthen personal resiliency, bridge political divides, and stimulate critical thinking – the #1 skill sought by employers and educators.

About the Britannica Group
The Britannica Group is a global knowledge leader. Its famed encyclopedia has been published since 1768, and Britannica has been a pioneer in digital learning since the 1980s. The company today serves the needs of students, lifelong learners, and professionals by providing curriculum products, language-study courses, digital encyclopedias, and professional readiness training through its extensive products.

The company has continued to pioneer and redefine information discovery within the technology and education fields, serving 156 countries and 150 million students worldwide in 16 languages. The company’s mission to inspire curiosity and the joy of learning has earned it the ranking of the #1 company to watch in the EdTech Digest ’s State of the EdTech report for 2019-2020. It is headquartered in Chicago.

# # #

Contact
Tom Panelas
The Britannica Group
312-347-7309
tpanelas@eb.com



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Is Homework Beneficial? – Top 3 Pros and Cons


 

Pro 1
Homework improves student achievement.
Studies show that homework improves student achievement in terms of improved grades, test results, and the likelihood to attend college.

Research published in the High School Journal indicates that students who spent between 31 and 90 minutes each day on homework “scored about 40 points higher on the SAT-Mathematics subtest than their peers, who reported spending no time on homework each day, on average.”

On both standardized tests and grades, students in classes that were assigned homework outperformed 69% of students who didn’t have homework. A majority of studies on homework’s impact – 64% in one meta-study and 72% in another – showed that take home assignments were effective at improving academic achievement.

Research by the Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) concluded that increased homework led to better GPAs and higher probability of college attendance for high school boys. In fact, boys who attended college did more than three hours of additional homework per week in high school.

Con 1
Too much homework can be harmful.
A poll of high school students in California found that 59% thought they had too much homework. 82% of respondents said that they were “often or always stressed by schoolwork.”

Alfie Kohn, an education and parenting expert, said, “Kids should have a chance to just be kids and do things they enjoy, particularly after spending six hours a day in school. After all, we adults need time just to chill out; it’s absurd to insist that children must be engaged in constructive activities right up until their heads hit the pillow.”

High-achieving high school students say too much homework leads to sleep deprivation and other health problems such as headaches, exhaustion, weight loss, and stomach problems.

Excessive homework leads to cheating: 90% of middle school students and 67% of high school students admit to copying someone else’s homework, and 43% of college students engaged in “unauthorized collaboration” on out-of-class assignments. Even parents take shortcuts on homework: 43% of those surveyed admitted to having completed a child’s assignment for them.

Pro 2
Homework helps to reinforce learning and develop good study habits and life skills.
Everyone knows that practice makes perfect. Students typically retain only 50% of the information teachers provide in class, and they need to apply that information in order to truly learn it.

Homework helps students to develop key skills that they’ll use throughout their lives, such as accountability, autonomy, discipline, time management, self-direction, critical thinking, and independent problem-solving.

A study of elementary school students who were taught “strategies to organize and complete homework,” such as prioritizing homework activities, collecting study materials, note-taking, and following directions, showed increased grades and positive comments on report cards.

Research by the City University of New York noted that “students who engage in self-regulatory processes while completing homework,” such as goal-setting, time management, and remaining focused, “are generally more motivated and are higher achievers than those who do not use these processes.”

Con 2
Homework disadvantages low-income students.
41% of US kids live in low-income families, which are less likely to have access to the resources needed to complete homework, such as pens and paper, a computer, internet access, a quiet work space, and a parent at home to help. They are also more likely to have to work after school and on weekends, or look after younger siblings, leaving less time for homework.

A study by the Hispanic Heritage Foundation found that 96.5% of students across the country said they needed to use the internet for class assignments outside of school, and nearly half reported there had been times they were unable to complete their homework due to lack of access to the internet or a computer, sometimes resulting in lower grades.

Private tutoring is a more than $6 billion enterprise that further advantages students from wealthier families. A study published in the International Journal of Education and Social Science concluded that homework increases social inequality because it “potentially serves as a mechanism to further advantage those students who already experience some privilege in the school system while further disadvantaging those who may already be in a marginalized position.”

Pro 3
Homework allows parents to be involved with their child’s learning.
Thanks to take-home assignments, parents are able to track what their children are learning at school as well as their academic strengths and weaknesses.

Data from a nationwide sample of elementary school students show that parental involvement in homework can improve class performance, especially among economically disadvantaged African-American and Hispanic students.

Research from Johns Hopkins University found that an interactive homework process known as TIPS (Teachers Involve Parents in Schoolwork) improves student achievement: “Students in the TIPS group earned significantly higher report card grades after 18 weeks (1 TIPS assignment per week) than did non-TIPS students.”

Homework can also help clue parents in to the existence of any learning disabilities their children may have, allowing them to get help and adjust learning strategies as needed. Duke University professor Harris Cooper, PhD, noted, “Two parents once told me they refused to believe their child had a learning disability until homework revealed it to them.”

Con 3
There is a lack of evidence that homework helps younger children.
An article published in the Review of Educational Research reported that “in elementary school, homework had no association with achievement gains” when measured by standardized tests results or grades.

Fourth grade students who did no homework got roughly the same score on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) math exam as those who did 30 minutes of homework a night. Students who did 45 minutes or more of homework a night actually did worse.

Temple University professor Kathryn Hirsh-Pasek, PhD, says that homework is not the most effective tool for young learners to apply new information: “They’re learning way more important skills when they’re not doing their homework.”

An entire elementary school district in Florida enacted a policy that replaced traditional homework with 20 minutes of reading each night – and students get to pick their reading material. A study by the University of Michigan found that reading for pleasure – but not homework – was “strongly associated with higher scores on all achievement tests” for children up to 12 years old.

Discussion Questions – Things to Think About

  1. What rules would you set for homework if you were in charge? Would you set limits on how much was allowed, and would that vary by grade level? Would you make rules for what kind of assignments teachers could give?
  2. What other pros and cons can you list for homework? Which side has the best arguments?
  3. Should students be allowed to get help on their homework from parents or other people they know? Why or why not?

Footnotes:

  1. Tom Loveless, “Homework in America: Part II of the 2014 Brown Center Report of American Education,” brookings.edu, Mar. 18, 2014

  • Edward Bok, “A National Crime at the Feet of American Parents,” The Ladies Home Journal, Jan. 1900
  • Tim Walker, “The Great Homework Debate: What’s Getting Lost in the Hype,” neatoday.org, Sep. 23, 2015
  • University of Phoenix College of Education, “Homework Anxiety: Survey Reveals How Much Homework K-12 Students Are Assigned and Why Teachers Deem It Beneficial,” phoenix.edu, Feb. 24, 2014
  • Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), “PISA in Focus No. 46: Does Homework Perpetuate Inequities in Education?,” oecd.org, Dec. 2014
  • Adam V. Maltese, Robert H. Tai, and Xitao Fan, “When is Homework Worth the Time?: Evaluating the Association between Homework and Achievement in High School Science and Math,” The High School Journal, 2012
  • Harris Cooper, Jorgianne Civey Robinson, and Erika A. Patall, “Does Homework Improve Academic Achievement? A Synthesis of Researcher, 1987-2003,” Review of Educational Research, 2006
  • Gökhan Bas, Cihad Sentürk, and Fatih Mehmet Cigerci, “Homework and Academic Achievement: A Meta-Analytic Review of Research,” Issues in Educational Research, 2017
  • Huiyong Fan, Jianzhong Xu, Zhihui Cai, Jinbo He, and Xitao Fan, “Homework and Students’ Achievement in Math and Science: A 30-Year Meta-Analysis, 1986-2015,” Educational Research Review, 2017
  • Charlene Marie Kalenkoski and Sabrina Wulff Pabilonia, “Does High School Homework Increase Academic Achievement?,” iza.og, Apr. 2014
  • Ron Kurtus, “Purpose of Homework,” school-for-champions.com, July 8, 2012
  • Harris Cooper, “Yes, Teachers Should Give Homework – The Benefits Are Many,” newsobserver.com, Sep. 2, 2016
  • Tammi A. Minke, “Types of Homework and Their Effect on Student Achievement,” repository.stcloudstate.edu, 2017
  • LakkshyaEducation.com, “How Does Homework Help Students: Suggestions From Experts,” LakkshyaEducation.com (accessed Aug. 29, 2018)
  • University of Montreal, “Do Kids Benefit from Homework?,” teaching.monster.com (accessed Aug. 30, 2018)
  • Glenda Faye Pryor-Johnson, “Why Homework Is Actually Good for Kids,” memphisparent.com, Feb. 1, 2012
  • Joan M. Shepard, “Developing Responsibility for Completing and Handing in Daily Homework Assignments for Students in Grades Three, Four, and Five,” eric.ed.gov, 1999
  • Darshanand Ramdass and Barry J. Zimmerman, “Developing Self-Regulation Skills: The Important Role of Homework,” Journal of Advanced Academics, 2011
  • US Department of Education, “Let’s Do Homework!,” ed.gov (accessed Aug. 29, 2018)
  • Loretta Waldman, “Sociologist Upends Notions about Parental Help with Homework,” phys.org, Apr. 12, 2014
  • Frances L. Van Voorhis, “Reflecting on the Homework Ritual: Assignments and Designs,” Theory Into Practice, June 2010
  • Roel J. F. J. Aries and Sofie J. Cabus, “Parental Homework Involvement Improves Test Scores? A Review of the Literature,” Review of Education, June 2015
  • Jamie Ballard, “40% of People Say Elementary School Students Have Too Much Homework,” yougov.com, July 31, 2018
  • Stanford University, “Stanford Survey of Adolescent School Experiences Report: Mira Costa High School, Winter 2017,” stanford.edu, 2017
  • Cathy Vatterott, “Rethinking Homework: Best Practices That Support Diverse Needs,” ascd.org, 2009
  • End the Race, “Homework: You Can Make a Difference,” racetonowhere.com (accessed Aug. 24, 2018)
  • Elissa Strauss, “Opinion: Your Kid Is Right, Homework Is Pointless. Here’s What You Should Do Instead.,” cnn.com, Jan. 28, 2020
  • Jeanne Fratello, “Survey: Homework Is Biggest Source of Stress for Mira Costa Students,” digmb.com, Dec. 15, 2017
  • Clifton B. Parker, “Stanford Research Shows Pitfalls of Homework,” stanford.edu, Mar. 10, 2014
  • AdCouncil, “Cheating Is a Personal Foul: Academic Cheating Background,” glass-castle.com (accessed Aug. 16, 2018)
  • Jeffrey R. Young, “High-Tech Cheating Abounds, and Professors Bear Some Blame,” chronicle.com, Mar. 28, 2010
  • Robin McClure, “Do You Do Your Child’s Homework?,” verywellfamily.com, Mar. 14, 2018
  • Robert M. Pressman, David B. Sugarman, Melissa L. Nemon, Jennifer, Desjarlais, Judith A. Owens, and Allison Schettini-Evans, “Homework and Family Stress: With Consideration of Parents’ Self Confidence, Educational Level, and Cultural Background,” The American Journal of Family Therapy, 2015
  • Heather Koball and Yang Jiang, “Basic Facts about Low-Income Children,” nccp.org, Jan. 2018
  • Meagan McGovern, “Homework Is for Rich Kids,” huffingtonpost.com, Sep. 2, 2016
  • H. Richard Milner IV, “Not All Students Have Access to Homework Help,” nytimes.com, Nov. 13, 2014
  • Claire McLaughlin, “The Homework Gap: The ‘Cruelest Part of the Digital Divide’,” neatoday.org, Apr. 20, 2016
  • Doug Levin, “This Evening’s Homework Requires the Use of the Internet,” edtechstrategies.com, May 1, 2015
  • Amy Lutz and Lakshmi Jayaram, “Getting the Homework Done: Social Class and Parents’ Relationship to Homework,” International Journal of Education and Social Science, June 2015
  • Sandra L. Hofferth and John F. Sandberg, “How American Children Spend Their Time,” psc.isr.umich.edu, Apr. 17, 2000
  • Alfie Kohn, “Does Homework Improve Learning?,” alfiekohn.org, 2006
  • Patrick A. Coleman, “Elementary School Homework Probably Isn’t Good for Kids,” fatherly.com, Feb. 8, 2018
  • Valerie Strauss, “Why This Superintendent Is Banning Homework – and Asking Kids to Read Instead,” washingtonpost.com, July 17, 2017
  • Pew Research Center, “The Way U.S. Teens Spend Their Time Is Changing, but Differences between Boys and Girls Persist,” pewresearch.org, Feb. 20, 2019


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    Where is My Drain Line Cleanout Situated?

    draincleaning

    Where is My Drain Line Cleanout Situated?

    Drain lines are crucial items of pipes infrastructure that aid relocate water and also atrophy from your home. While the city takes care of the community sewer pipelines, it’s the home owner’s obligation to maintain those drain pipelines that drop within his/her property lines. If there’s a low area in the pipeline, water and waste can build up there and create a clog gradually. It is necessary to understand where your sewage system line cleanout gain access to port is so you can promptly remove any type of blockages within the sewage system pipe and also restore flow in the sewer system.

    Apofraxeis Athina gives the follwing piece of advice.

    Check out your story strategies

    One of the most effective ways to find the area of your sewer line cleanout access port is to consider the engineered story prepare for the home. Sewage system solution lines will be shown on these files, and can lead you to the cleanout point. These maps will certainly be crucial devices to aid experts prevent the lines when excavating is needed.

    Look in most likely areas

    If you do not have plot plans or can not recognize the cleanout gain access to on the map, begin searching in the areas where the sewer line cleanout is most likely to be. The cleanout is normally a 4-inch-diameter pipeline with a screw cap that has a square handle or indentation on the top. It’s most likely mosting likely to be appearing from the ground outside your house between the structure and the street. The cleanout may likewise get on the side of the home, closest to the shower room.

    Cleanout gain access to ports may additionally be situated in the cellar or covered by drywall, however these aren’t regular for a lot of homes. If it’s within the wall, you’ll need to eliminate parts of the drywall to try to find it, however this can obtain untidy promptly. Ensure to meticulously avoid cables and also various other pipelines.

    Call an expert

    When all else fails, want to a pipes expert to situate your drain line cleanout accessibility. These experts have the abilities and also tools needed to quickly discover your cleanout access port as well as remove any blockages that exist. If it’s within the wall, plumbers can often recognize where it is and also get to it with as little damage as well as disruption to your house as possible. This will certainly be vital to staying clear of added repair expenses and guaranteeing that the problem is fixed the first time. If your home is not furnished with a cleanout accessibility port, it’s well worth the money to have a plumber set up one for you to make future sewage system cleanings a much less complex procedure.

    A clogged sewer line can cause problems and undesirable smells. Knowing where your sewer cleanout is can aid you eliminate any obstructions and also obtain your lines back right into working order. Get in touch with a Roto-Rooter professional today to locate your drain line cleanout and also deal with the scenario.

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    Clean energy investment set to hit $2.6 trillion this decade

    Clean energy investment set to hit $2.6 trillion this decade


    William Mathis, Bloomberg

    The global energy supply is turning greener.

    Investment in new renewable energy is on course to total $2.6 trillion in the years from 2010 through the end of 2019, according to a study by BloombergNEF for the United Nations Environment Program and Frankfurt School’s UNEP Center published Thursday.

    The boom in the capacity to generate electricity from low-carbon sources gives credibility to an effort by world leaders to slash climate-damaging greenhouse gases. Falling costs of wind and solar power plants is making more projects in new markets economically competitive with generation fed by fossil fuels.

    “Investing in renewable energy is investing in a sustainable and profitable future, as the last decade of incredible growth in renewables has shown,” said Inger Andersen, executive director of UNEP. “It is clear that we need to rapidly step up the pace of the global switch to renewables if we are to meet international climate and development goals.”

    The scale of investment going into clean energy represents a growing chunk of the money flowing into the power industry. Renewables such as wind, solar and hydro-electric plants will draw about $322 billion a year through 2025, according to separate forecasts from the International Energy Agency. That’s almost triple the $116 billion a year that will go into fossil fuel plants and about the same as what will be invested in power grids.

    By far the biggest contributions to new investment have been made in solar and wind farms. Global solar power capacity increased by more than 2,500% in the decade, from 25 gigawatts at the beginning of 2010 to 663 gigawatts anticipated by the end of this year.

    Still, the end of the decade showed some cracks. Funds moving into solar declined in some of the biggest markets in 2018 compared with the year prior.

    The cost of renewable technologies has fallen precipitously over the last few years. That’s also helped make renewables less reliant on government support. BNEF’s data shows the levelized cost of electricity is down 81% for solar photovoltaics since 2009.

    “Sharp falls in the cost of electricity from wind and solar over recent years have transformed the choice facing policy makers,” said Jon Moore, chief executive officer of BloombergNEF. “Now, in many countries around the world, either wind or solar is the cheapest option for electricity generation.”

    China has had by far the most investment in new renewable energy, making up nearly a third of the global total. The boom in solar hit a setback last year after the Chinese government announced restrictions on the number of new solar installations that would qualify for support. That led solar investment in China in the second half of 2018 to fall about 56% compared with the same period a year earlier.Despite the significant investment, renewables still makes up a relatively small proportion of global power generation. China led the way in buying wind and solar plants but also poured money into new coal power generation units.

    Many more renewable projects will come online in the coming decades. Wind and solar are set to contribute 48% of generation by 2050, according to BloombergNEF.

    Overall, there’s been a net increase of 2.4 terawatts of installed capacity globally. While much of that has been from clean sources like wind, solar and hydro, a significant portion of that came from plants fired by coal and natural gas.

    Europe and the U.S. have closed down coal plants, but that has been offset by an increase in Asia, especially in India. That’s helped to increase carbon emissions from the global power industry by at least 10% from the end of 2009 through 2019.


    POWERGEN is the event that showcases the energy transition. Join us in New Orleans this November 19-21 to learn about all the latest technologies and market trends affecting the energy industry today.



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    Abortion Is the Most Polarizing Issue, Birth Control Is Least Divisive

    Abortion Is the Most Polarizing Issue, Birth Control Is Least Divisive


    Getty Images, “Row of Seats – Stock Photo,” gettyimages.com (accessed Aug. 6, 2019)

    Gallup, an organization that conducts public opinion polls, has released an annual Values and Beliefs poll since 2001. The poll shows Americans’ views on the morality of several controversial issues. While many of the topics remained in line with last year’s findings, the current results highlight divisions along party lines.

    Abortion is the most divisive issue among political ideologies, with a 50 percentage-point difference among those who say abortion is morally acceptable (23% of conservatives and 73% of liberals). Birth control is the least divisive: liberals are only three percentage points head of conservatives on this topic (93% in favor versus 90%).

    More conservatives view the death penalty (66% versus 46%) and medical testing on animals (55% versus 47%) as morally acceptable, while more liberals deem physician-assisted suicide (72% versus 36%) and smoking marijuana (82% versus 49%) as okay.

    Among Americans overall, more people believe abortion is morally wrong (50%) in 2019 than in 2001 (45%), while 42% found it morally acceptable in both 2001 and 2019.

    There was a slight decrease in the percentage of people who say the death penalty is morally acceptable, from 63% in 2001 to 60% in 2019. The percentage of those who find it morally wrong increased from 27% in 2001 to 35%.

    Physician-assisted suicide saw increases in both sides, from 49% in 2001 to 52% in 2019 for moral acceptance and from 40% to 44% in belief that the act is morally wrong. The increase in both is made possible by a decrease (from 8% to 2%) in those who answered that morality depended upon the circumstances and a decrease (from 3% to 1%) in those who gave no answer.

    Fewer people believe that medical testing on animals is morally acceptable, a drop from 65% in 2001 to 51% in 2019. There is a corresponding uptick in the percentage of Americans that believe animal testing is morally wrong, from 26% to 44%.

    Birth control is still almost entirely considered morally acceptable in 2019 (92%) compared to 89% in 2001, while slightly fewer people (6% versus 8%) believe contraceptives are be morally wrong.

    Gallup has only polled on smoking marijuana in 2018 and 2019. Moral acceptance has remained the same (65%), while those who believe it to be morally wrong have increased from 31% to 33%.

     



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    Foul Septic Smell? Consider These Options

    ydravlikos-athina

    Foul septic smell or sewage smell is just about the worst odor you can come by.  Somehow it just stays with you.  You can drive away from a home with a septic smell problem and the odor will remain with you for minutes, it can even feel like you can taste it.  Ugh.  It is some nasty stuff.

    While the smell is repugnant, what it indicates can also make your stomach turn.  A clogged septic system ( ydravlikos )or a backed-up drain field can be a very expensive problem to fix.  If left unattended, the problem can compound to the point of system failure, a cost that can run as high as $15,000.  If you are currently dealing with septic smell or other septic tank problems there are a few things to consider before you do anything.

    1.  Become Determined.  You need to decide right now to fix the problem.  Septic smell can be one of the first indications that you have a serious septic problem on your hands.  You will need to deal with this, but before you rush into anything take some time think things through.
    2. What do You Know.  You do not need to be an expert in plumbing to solve your septic problem, and you want to at least have a basic understanding of how your septic system works before you pick up the phone, or start spending money in any way.  Do some research online, read articles like this one and reviews, get an initial understanding of your options.
    3. Prepare to Be Sold.  If you choose to call a contractor, who will undoubtedly tell you that you must replace this or that part of your system, realize that they get paid by replacing parts of your septic system.  Their advice is in complete conflict of interest.  It’s like asking a used car salesman if the car is reliable.  There is only one answer, understand?  Doesn’t mean that replacing the system won’t solve your problems, it will. It’s a new system, but if you are going to spend $10,000 don’t you want to make sure that you HAVE to?
    4. Review Septic Treatments.  There are high quality septic treatments on the market that can restore septic systems and do so at an impressive speed.  In some instances these septic treatments can save homeowners thousands of dollars due to the fact that the most concentrated treatments sell for only a few hundred dollars compared to the cost of having septic system repairs done.  Use your common sense, if you think these septic treatments can do the trick and save the day…go for it.  In many cases trying something for a few hundred dollars to rule it out as an option, is also a cost effective approach.
    5. Talk it Over.  Before you make any decision talk it over with someone.  Usually a loved one or a family member is aware of the situation.  Before you make a decision, talk it over, explain why it is that you think your choice is the right one.  Two heads are better than one, making decisions after a some consideration and conversation, you often feel better about your approach.
    6. Stay the Course.  Once you have decided, act and stay the course.  If a septic treatment is both a shock and a maintenance program, then make sure you are disciplined in your applications.  Trying a treatment and then 3 days later expecting results is not how they work, see it through.  If you opted to replace your system, don’t waffle on getting it done, make the call and move on.  Be sure to maintain your new system with a monthly additive to prevent future damage from occurring.

    What you decide about restoring your septic system is up to you.  Chances are you are not going to wrong either way you look.  New systems are new and they work well, they are just expensive.  If you need to examine more affordable septic treatment options then do so, but don’t let price be the only decision maker.  Sometimes quality costs a bit more, septic treatment is not the time to cut corners.