Zoos – Top 3 Pros and Cons


Pro 1

Zoos educate the public about animals and conservation efforts. As of Apr. 2019, there are 236 accredited zoos in the United States. The zoos attract over 181 million visitors annually, which is more than the approximately 131 million yearly spectators of the NFL, NBA, NHL, and MLB combined.

According to a study of 26 zoos worldwide published in Conservation Biology, visitors to zoos increased their knowledge of biodiversity and specific individual actions to protect biodiversity.

Robin Ganzert, PhD, President and CEO of American Humane, stated, “zoos provide people, especially impressionable children, with the opportunity to see these remarkable animals up close. People won’t protect what they don’t love, and they can’t love what they don’t know. No matter how closely programs like Planet Earth depict animals, nothing will match the bond of seeing them in real life. Just look at a child’s eyes at the zoo when he or she encounters a tiger or similarly majestic animal.”

Con 1

Zoos don’t educate the public enough to justify keeping animals captive. A review published in Animal Studies Repository concluded, “to date there is no compelling or even particularly suggestive evidence for the claim that zoos and aquariums promote attitude change, education, and interest in conservation in visitors.” Even a study widely cited to justify the argument that zoos educate the public stated, “there was no overall statistically significant change in understanding [of ecological concepts] seen” because visitors know a lot about ecology before going to the zoo.

TV shows such as Planet Earth bring wild animals into living rooms, allowing people to see the animals in their natural habitats without causing harm to animals such as the endangered snow leopard. Romesh Ranganathan, a British comedian, stated, “It still slightly surprises me that anybody thinks that we should have zoos at all. The animals always look miserable in captivity… [T]he idea that kids only get excited about things they can see in the flesh is ridiculous. My kids are obsessed with dinosaurs that no longer exist, and Skylanders, which have never existed.”

Pro 2

Zoos produce helpful scientific research. 228 accredited zoos published 5,175 peer-reviewed manuscripts between 1993 and 2013. In 2017, 173 accredited US zoos spent $25 million on research, studied 485 species and subspecies of animals, worked on 1,280 research projects, and published 170 research manuscripts.

Because so many diseases can be transmitted from animals to humans, such as Ebola, Hantavirus, and the bird flu, zoos frequently conduct disease surveillance research in wildlife populations and their own captive populations that can lead to a direct impact on human health. For example, the veterinary staff at the Bronx Zoo in New York alerted health officials of the presence of West Nile Virus.

Zoo research is used in other ways such as informing legislation like the Sustainable Shark Fisheries and Trade Act, helping engineers build a robot to move like a sidewinder snake, and encouraging minority students to enter STEM careers.

Con 2

Zoos are detrimental to animals’ physical health. A study of 35 species of carnivores, including brown bears, cheetahs, and lions, found that zoo enclosures were too small for the animals to carry out their normal routines, which led to problems such as pacing and more infant deaths. Polar bears, for example, had an infant mortality rate of 65% due to small enclosures.

About 70% of adult male gorillas in North America have heart disease, the leading cause of death among gorillas in captivity, although the condition is almost completely absent in the wild. Other great apes have similar health problems in captivity.

Captive elephants live about half as long as wild elephants: 18.9 years v. 41.7 years for Asian elephants and 16.9 years v. 35.8 years for African elephants. Of 77 elephants in 13 zoos, 71 were overweight and spent 83% of their time indoors, contributing to early death.

Pro 3

Zoos save species from extinction and other dangers. Corroboree frogs, eastern bongos, regent honeyeaters, Panamanian golden frogs, Bellinger River snapping turtles, golden lion tamarins, and Amur leopards, among others, have also been saved from extinction by zoos.

Zoos are also working to save polar bears, tigers, and wild African elephants from habitat loss, apes and rhinos from poachers, dolphins and whales from hunters, and bees and butterflies from population declines, among many other efforts to help many other animals.

23% of birds and 47% of small mammals (weighing less than about 2.2 pounds) are negatively impacted by climate change. By keeping populations of animals and conducting wild repopulation, zoos can help preserve species in danger from climate change. There were only nine California condors in the wild in 1985. A joint conservation effort between the San Diego and Los Angeles Zoos with other organizations resulted in a population of 276 California condors in the wild and another 170 in captivity by 2016.

Przewalski’s horses, the last wild horses, were declared extinct in the wild in the 1960s when about 12 lived in zoos. By 2018, breeding programs at zoos increased the number to 2,400 horses, and 800 were reintroduced to the wild.

Con 3

Zoo confinement is psychologically damaging to animals. Animal behaviorists often see zoo animals suffering from problems not seen in the wild, such as clinical depression in clouded leopards and gibbons, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in brown bears, and anxiety in giraffes. The animals experience these issues due to smaller enclosures, changes in diet and activities, and the introduction of things not seen in the wild, such as medical exams and people with cameras. The Toledo Zoo ran a psychiatric program in which a gorilla with premenstrual depression was prescribed Prozac. To ease them into new habitats, an agitated tiger was given Valium, and anxious zebras and wildebeests were given Haldol.

A study of captive chimpanzees found that “abnormal behaviour is endemic in the population,” and includes behaviors such as eating feces, twitching, rocking back and forth, plucking hair, pacing, vomiting, and self-mutilation, among others. The study concluded that the cause of such behavior could be mental health issues.

About 24% of captive orcas have “major” to “extreme” tooth wear and 60% had tooth fractures as a result of stress-induced teeth grinding. As a result of the 2013 documentary Blackfish, which exposed the psychological damage done to orcas by SeaWorld, California outlawed captive orca breeding.



  1. National Geographic, “Zoo,” nationalgeographic.org (accessed May 8, 2019)
  2. Schönbrunn Palace, “Zoo,” schoenbrunn.at (accessed Apr. 23, 2019)
  3. CBC, “Trapped in a Human Zoo,” cbc.ca, (accessed Apr. 23, 2019)
  4. Krista Langlois, “Something Mysterious Is Killing Captive Gorillas,” theatlantic.com, Mar. 5, 2018
  5. Association of Zoos & Aquariums, “Currently Accredited Zoos and Aquariums,” aza.org, Apr. 2019
  6. Association of Zoos & Aquariums, “Visitor Demographics,” aza.org (accessed May 7, 2019)
  7. Maury Brown, “Why MLB Attendance Dropped below 70 Million for the First Time in 15 Years,” forbes.com, Oct. 3, 2018
  8. NHL, “NHL Attendance (1975-76 through 2018-2019),” records.nhl.com (accessed May. 7, 2019)
  9. NBA, “NBA Breaks All-Time Attendance Record for Fourth Straight Year,” nba.com, Apr. 12, 2018
  10. Brandon McClung, “NFL Attendance Lowest since ’10 Despite Chargers Rebound,” sportsbusinessdaily.com, Jan. 2, 2019
  11. Andrew Moss, Eric Jensen, and Markus Gusset, “Evaluating the Contribution of Zoos and Aquariums to Aichi Biodiversity Target 1,” Conservation Biology, Aug. 22, 2014
  12. Robin Ganzert, “Zoos Save Species — Visit One This World Wildlife Day,” thehill.com, Mar. 3, 2018
  13. Tse-Lynn Loh, et al., “Quantifying the Contribution of Zoos and Aquariums to Peer-Reviewed Scientific Research,” facetsjournal.com, Mar. 15, 2018
  14. Association of Zoos & Aquariums, “Research and Science,” aza.org (accessed May 7, 2019)
  15. C. Robinette, L. Saffran, A. Ruple, and S.L. Deem, “Zoos and Public Health: A Partnership on the One Health Frontier,” One Health, Nov. 23, 2016
  16. Taronga Conservation Society Australia, “10 Endangered Species Saved from Extinction by Zoos,” medium.com, May 18, 2017
  17. Association of Zoos & Aquariums, “AZA and Animal Program Conservation Initiatives,” aza.org (accessed Apr. 17, 2019)
  18. Association of Zoos & Aquariums, “Pollinator Conservation,” aza.org (accessed Apr. 17, 2019)
  19. Association of Zoos & Aquariums, “Climate Change and Wildlife,” aza.org (accessed Apr. 17, 2019)
  20. Association of Zoos & Aquariums, “Marine Mammal Conservation,” aza.org (accessed Apr. 17, 2019)
  21. Michela Pacifici, et al., “Species Traits Influenced Their Response to Recent Climate Change,” nature.com, 2017
  22. Association of Zoos & Aquariums, “Conservation Success Stories in AZA-Accredited Zoos and Aquariums,” aza.org, Apr. 20, 2017
  23. US Fish & Wildlife Service, “California Condor Population Information,” fws.gov, May 7, 2018
  24. Jan Flemr, “Long Way Home as Przewalski’s Horses Fly to Mongolia,” phys.org, July 19, 2018
  25. Jane Palmer, “The World’s Last Truly Wild Horse,” bbc.com, Nov. 11, 2015
  26. Lori Marino, et al., “Do Zoos and Aquariums Promote Attitude Change in Visitors? A Critical Evaluation of the American Zoo and Aquarium Study,” animalstudiesrepoistory.org, 2010
  27. John H. Falk, et al., “Why Zoos and Aquariums Matter: Assessing the Impact of a Visit to a Zoo or Aquarium,” docplayer.net, 2007
  28. Romesh Ranganathan, “Zoos Are Prisons for Animals — No One Needs to See a Depressed Penguin in the Flesh,” theguardian.com, Mar. 13, 2017
  29. Edna Francisco, “Zoo Carnivores Need More Space,” sciencemag.org, Oct. 1, 2003
  30. Ian Sample, “Stress and Lack of Exercise Are Killing Elephants Zoos Warned,” theguardian.com, Dec. 11, 2008
  31. Alex Halberstadt, “Zoo Animals and Their Discontents,” nytimes.com, July 3, 2014
  32. Daniel Engber, “The Tears of a Panda,” slate.com, Sep. 14, 2006
  33. Jenni Laidman, “Zoos Using Drugs to Help Manage Anxious Animals,” toledoblade.com, Sep. 12, 2005
  34. Lucy Birkett and Nicholas E. Newton-Fisher, “How Abnormal Is the Behavior of Captive, Zoo-Living Chimpanzees?,” journals.plos.org, June 16, 2011
  35. John Jett, et al., “Tooth Damage in Captive Orcas,” sciencedirect.com, May 2018
  36. Natasha Daly, “Orcas Don’t Do Well in Captivity. Here’s Why,” nationalgeographic.com, Mar. 25, 2019
  37. Shelby Isaacson, “Mote Ranked No. 1 Nonprofit in Published Research by Top Zoos and Aquariums,” mote.org, Apr. 4, 2018
  38. Zoo Atlanta, “Representative Research,” zooatlanta.org (accessed May 8, 2019)
  39. Bronx Zoo, “Bridging the Gap,” bronxzoo.com (accessed May 8, 2019)

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Permanent Daylight Saving Time Considered by States

Permanent Daylight Saving Time Considered by States

Permanent daylight saving time means that when clocks are adjusted to “spring forward” by an hour from March to November, they would never “fall back,” thus creating more sunlight in the evening hours.

A permanent daylight saving time (DST) bill, HB 1196, was signed into law in Washington state on May 8, 2019. The law would enact DST year-round if Congress were to amend the Uniform Time Act to allow the change. Currently, states may opt-out of the time change only if they remain on standard time all year. Arizona and Hawaii are the only two states that stay on standard time throughout the year, so residents never change their clocks.

Many other states are considering similar laws or appeals to Congress, including California, New York, and Texas. In Illinois, a group of high school students lobbied State Senator Andy Manar (D) to introduce SB 533 to end daylight saving time after learning about the issue in civics class.

Bills to move to permanent daylight saving have died in Idaho, Mississippi, New Mexico, Virginia, West Virginia, and Wyoming this year.

At the federal level, Senators Marco Rubio (R-FL) and Rick Scott (R-FL), and Representative Vern Buchanan (R-FL) introduced the Sunshine Protection Act on Mar. 6, 2019, which would switch the whole country to permanent DST. Florida enacted a permanent DST law in 2018, the first state to do so. In a Mar. 15, 2019 opinion piece, Rubio and Buchanan noted that permanent DST could benefit the economy, lower health risks, and reduce crime.

Heidi May Wilson, a spokesperson for the National Parent Teacher Association, stated, “National PTA is opposed to daylight saving time during the winter months because of the safety factor.” Not changing the clocks in the fall would make winter mornings even darker and colder for kids walking to school or the bus stop.

Internationally, the European Union (EU) got rid of the twice-yearly time switch, and will allow member states to choose to stay on “permanent winter” or “permanent summer time,” essentially standard time and daylight saving time respectively, in 2021.

In 2019, DST runs from Sunday, Mar. 10 to Sunday, Nov. 3 in the United States.



Joel Achenbach, “Springing forward to Daylight Saving Time Is Obsolete, Confusing and Unhealthy, Critics Say,” washingtonpost.com, Mar. 8, 2019

Ballotpedia, “California Proposition 7, Permanent Daylight Saving Time Measure (2018),” ballotpedia.org (accessed May 13, 2019)

Daniel Boffey, “European Parliament Votes to Scrap Daylight Saving Time from 2021,” theguardian.com, Mar. 26, 2019

Cassie Buchman, “These High School Students Want to End Daylight Saving Time in Illinois. Lawmakers Are Listening,” pjstar.com, May 12, 2019

LocktheClock, “Current Legislation,” sco.tt/time (accessed May 13, 2019)

Marco Rubio, “Senators Rubio, Scott, Representative Buchanan Introduce Bill To Make Daylight Saving Time Permanent,” rubio.senate.gov, Mar. 6, 2019

Marco Rubio and Vern Buchanan, “Trump Is Right. Daylight Saving Time Should Be Permanent,” washingtonpost.com, Mar. 15, 2019

Reid Wilson, “Dozens of States Consider Move to Permanent Daylight Saving Time,” thehill.com, May 12, 2019

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Strict Abortion Laws Passed in Several States

Strict Abortion Laws Passed in Several States

Alabama Governor Kay Ivey signs the Alabama abortion law on May 15, 2019
Source: Kay Ivey, Twitter post, twitter.com, May 15, 2019

At least five states have passed strict abortion laws in 2019, partially in an effort to challenge Roe v. Wade, the 1973 Supreme Court case that legalized abortion nationwide.

Alabama passed a near-total ban on abortion on May 15, 2019 that is meant to go into effect in Nov. 2019. The law makes abortion illegal in almost all cases, does not have exceptions for rape or incest, and includes felony penalties of up to life in prison for doctors who perform abortions.

Alabama State Representative Terri Collins stated the law “is about challenging Roe v. Wade and protecting the lives of the unborn because an unborn baby is a person who deserves love and protection.”

Leana Wen, MD, President and CEO of Planned Parenthood, stated, “Politicians in Alabama just passed the most extreme and dangerous policy since Roe vs. Wade… Alabama is putting women’s lives at even greater risk.”

Georgia, Kentucky, Ohio, and Mississippi passed “fetal heartbeat” laws that ban abortion when a “heartbeat” has been detected, generally around six weeks.

According to Jennifer Kerns, MD, MS, MPH, OB-GYN at the University of California at San Francisco, “At six weeks, the embryo is forming what will eventually develop into mature systems. There’s an immature neurological system, and there’s a very immature cardiovascular system. [The “heartbeat”] is a group of cells with electrical activity… We are in no way talking about any kind of cardiovascular system.”

Sarah Horvath, MD, OB-GYN with the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, further explained, “What’s really happening at that point is that our ultrasound technology has gotten good enough to be able to detect electrical activity in a rudimentary group of cells.”

Georgia’s law is set to go in effect on Jan. 1, 2020. However, the Kentucky law has been struck down by a federal judge and the Ohio and Mississippi laws are currently being challenged in courts.

Eleven other states have “fetal heartbeat” bills in the works, including Florida, Illinois, Louisiana, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, New York, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and West Virginia.

As of May 1, 2019, Guttmacher Institute lists 18 states with laws that would make abortion illegal or otherwise restrict access should Roe v. Wade be overturned: nine states have bans and five have other restrictions from before Roe v. Wade still on the law books, six have near-total bans, and seven have laws saying abortion will be restricted as much as possible.

Elizabeth Nash, MPP, Senior States Issue Manager at the Guttmacher Institute, stated, “There’s a real momentum around banning abortion at the state level and it’s stemming from the shift in the U.S. Supreme Court.” That shift was the Trump administration’s addition of two conservative Associate Justices, Neil Gorsuch and Brett Kavanaugh.

Some states have chosen to pass laws that would keep abortion legal if Roe v. Wade were overturned by the US Supreme Court. New York passed a law on the 46th anniversary of Roe v. Wade on Jan. 22, 2019. At least nine other states have followed suit, including California, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Maine, Maryland, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington.



Erin Corbett, “Abortion Is Still Legal in All 50 States,” fortune.com, May 17, 2019

Nicole Chavez, “The Rising Wave of Abortion Restrictions in America,” cnn.com, May 18, 2019

Erin Corbett, “New York’s Landmark Abortion Rights Bill Protecting Roe v. Wade Decision Now Law,” fortune.com, Jan. 23, 2019

Amanda Michelle Gomez, “States Are Already Pre-Filing ‘Fetal Heartbeat’ Bans for the New Year,” thinkprogress.org, Dec. 20, 2018

Guttmacher Institute, “Abortion Policy in the Absence of Roe,” guttmacher.org, May 1, 2019

Katie Reilly, “Alabama’s Abortion Ban Is Designed to Challenge Roe v. Wade at the Supreme Court. Here’s What Happens Next,” time.com, May 15, 2019

Rachael Rettner, “Is a ‘Fetal Heartbeat’ Really a Heartbeat at 6 Weeks?,” livescience.com, May 17, 2019

Adam Rogers, “‘Heartbeat’ Bills Get the Science of Fetal Heartbeats All Wrong,” wired.com, May 14, 2019

Leana Wen, Twitter post, twitter.com, May 14, 2019

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E-Cigarette Flavorings Linked to Cell Damage and Heart Disease

E-Cigarette Flavorings Linked to Cell Damage and Heart Disease

Vaping using an e-cigarette
Source: Lindsay Fox, “Vaping,” wikimedia.org, Mar. 26, 2016

A May 27, 2019 study published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology found that the flavorings used in e-cigarettes caused DNA damage and cell death, among other health problems.

The researchers tested six flavorings on lab-grown cells: fruit, tobacco, sweet tobacco with caramel and vanilla, sweet butterscotch, cinnamon, and menthol. The latter two were found to be the most toxic, even without nicotine.

The flavorings damaged endothelial cells, a type of cardiovascular cell that lines blood vessels. The damage make it harder for the cells to form new blood vessels or heal wounds, which increases the risk of heart disease.

Joseph Wu, MD, PhD, Director of the Stanford Cardiovascular Institute and senior author of the study, stated, “Until now, we had no data about how these e-liquids affect human endothelial cells. This study clearly shows that e-cigarettes are not a safe alternative to traditional cigarettes. When we exposed the cells to six different flavors of e-liquid with varying levels of nicotine, we saw significant damage. The cells were less viable in culture, and they began to exhibit multiple symptoms of dysfunction.”

Some e-cigarette supporters promote vaping as a way to stop smoking. The Truth Initiative, an advocacy group devoted to eliminating tobacco, stated, “Using e-cigarettes is substantially less harmful to individual health than inhaling smoke from combustible tobacco, such as cigarettes and cigars.” A study published in New England Journal of Medicine found that smokers who turned to vaping were more successful at quitting traditional cigarettes than people who tried nicotine patches, gum, or other smoking cessation products.

An estimated 10.8 million American adults and 3 million high school students use e-cigarettes.



Krista Conger, “E-Cigarette Use, Flavorings May Increase Heart Disease Risk, Study Finds,” med.stanford.edu, May 27, 2019

Angelica LaVito, “CDC Blames Spike in Teen Tobacco Use on Vaping, Popularity of Juul,” cnbc.com, Feb. 11, 2019

Bailey King, “Flavored E-Cigarettes May Lead to Heart Disease, Study Finds,” phillyvoice.com, May 28, 2019

Won Hee Lee, et al., “Modeling Cardiovascular Risks of E-Cigarettes with Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell–Derived Endothelial Cells,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, June 2019

Lauran Neergaard, “Study Suggests E-Cigarette Flavorings May Post Heart Risk,” apnews.com, May 27, 2019

Lisa Rapaport, “Almost One in 20 U.S. Adults Now Use E-Cigarettes,” reuters.com, Aug. 27, 2018

Peter Roff, “We Could Vape Our Way to Health—If the Government Gets out of the Way,” newsweek.com, May 10, 2019

Truth Initiative, “E-Cigarettes: Facts, Stats and Regulations,” truthinitiative.org, July 19, 2018

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Illinois to Be 11th Legal Recreational Marijuana State

Illinois to Be 11th Legal Recreational Marijuana State

Marijuana at a cannabis dispensary in Las Vegas
Source: Associated Press, “West Virginia Posts Online Medical Marijuana Survey,” Oct. 19, 2017

Illinois lawmakers approved recreational marijuana bill HB 1438 on Friday, May 31, 2019. Governor J.B. Pritzker, JD, has indicated he will sign the bill, which will make Illinois the eleventh state to legalize recreational marijuana.

The law is expected to go into effect on Jan. 1, 2020, at which point cannabis possession and sales will be legal for adults over 21 years old. Only currently licensed medical marijuana dispensaries will be allowed to sell marijuana at first, with more licenses expected to be issued mid-year.

Governor Pritzker (D) tweeted on May 31, 2019, “The state of Illinois just made history, legalizing adult-use cannabis with the most equality-centric approach in the nation. This will have a transformational impact on our state, creating opportunity in the communities that need it more and giving so many a second chance.”

Illinois is the first state to legalize commercial sales of marijuana via legislation. Vermont legalized possession via legislation in 2018, but has yet to legalize commercial sales. The other nine states have legalized recreational marijuana via ballot initiative.

Additionally, the governor will pardon everyone convicted of possessing up to 30 grams of marijuana and the attorney general will expunge public records of the convictions and arrests. People who have been convicted of possessing 30 to 500 grams will be able to petition for their conviction to be expunged.

State Representative Anthony DeLuca referenced a 1980s anti-drug commercial by cracking an egg into a frying pan during the legislative debate and stating, “this is your brain on drugs.” The lawmaker later stated, “This bill moves in the opposite direction of moves I’m trying to make as a parent, telling kids getting stoned is an acceptable recreational activity. I just have a real problem with that. No matter how you package this — whether it’s revenue or criminal justice reform, or people are smoking it anyway, I can guarantee where we’ll be in 10 or 20 years, and it’s not going to be good.”

Illinois legalized medical marijuana in 2013 and is one of 33 legal medical marijuana states.



David Aaro, “Illinois Poised to Legalize Recreational Marijuana,” foxnews.com, June 2, 2019

Austin Berg, “What You Need to Know about Marijuana Legalization in Illinois,” illinoispolicy.org, June 1, 2019

Robert McCoppin, “Here’s When Marijuana Will Be Legal in Illinois, and Answers to Other Burning Questions about Recreational Weed,” chicagotribune.com, June 3, 2019

Karen Pierog, “Illinois Bill to Legalize Recreational Marijuana Wins Legislative Approval,” reuters.com, May 31, 2019

WGN Web Desk, “Illinois Lawmaker Uses Egg, Frying Pan Demonstration During Recreational Marijuana Debate,” wgntv.com, May 31, 2019

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The cheapest Xbox One bundle deals and sale prices in June 2019

The cheapest Xbox One bundle deals and sale prices in June 2019

Freshly discounted cheap Xbox One bundle deals have appeared this week and we’ve found some fantastic discounts. So if you’ve decided it’s finally time to opt for a sweet Xbox One deal, then you’re in luck. Microsoft is really pushing discounts on the 1TB consoles now too, which are much more accommodating for your library of games and their large install sizes than the regular 500GB models. The Division 2, Crackdown 3, Anthem, Battlefield V, Forza Horizon 4 and more are all aboard the Xbox One deals train today.

If you’re excited to hear about what’s coming up in the world of Xbox, be sure to check in on our extensive coverage of E3 2019.

We’ve also just added a section below dedicated to rounding up the best prices for the newly-announced Xbox One S All-Digital Edition, although you might want to hold off on that version of the Xbox console for a while. We’ll tell you way further down.

Retailers are stocking some cheap Xbox One deals as standalone purchases, but the best value is to be found with the bundles with extra games. Xbox One bundles nowadays often cost less than the standalone consoles prices too, so be sure to check out our hand-picked list of the best Xbox One offers below the comparison charts. Or maybe you’re looking for a 4K upgrade? Then you’ll want to take a look at the latest Xbox One X bundles.

Looking to buy in the US or Australia? You’ll want to head on over to our US page or AU page.

Xbox One S All-Digital Edition deals

Microsoft finally announced the long-rumoured Xbox One S All-Digital Edition in April 2019 and it’s available to order right now. As the name suggests, this version of the Xbox One does not come with a disc drive. So you will not be able to play physical games or blu-rays on this version.

The Xbox One S All-Digital Edition costs £199 in the UK and comes with codes for Forza Horizon 3, Minecraft and Sea of Thieves. To be honest, we’re not entirely convinced at that price point as you can get the regular version for a similar price and with newer games. Actually, we regularly see standard Xbox One S bundles on this page go for even less, so be sure to check out the offers further down the page before jumping on this. The new console offers no technical improvements over the original S model, so this should only be considered when the price reaches a more appropriate level. Naturally, we’ll keep this page updated when it does.

cheap xbox one s deals

Xbox One deals

The slimmed-down design of the Xbox One S looks much better than the original chunky box and the power brick is now a thing of the past. The main draw though is 4K visual support meaning you’ll be able to watch specialised Blu-Ray and Netflix content in 4K on your new 4K TV. 

The Xbox One S is now the standard console and has replaced the older model that’s been phased out at retailers. The Xbox One S is cheaper too, so in all honesty we’ve generally stopped covering deals on the older model as you’re getting better value with the newer version and we’ve not spotted any decent stock for months now.

Xbox One Deal of the Week

The best Xbox One bundle deals

The cheapest Xbox One bundle deals and sale prices in June 2019

1TB Xbox One S | Battlefield V | £199 at AO
Prices have been up and down on this Xbox One bundle for a while now, but this is back to it’s excellent low price offer. We’ve spotted it going back up to £250 at some stores, so this is much better. Battlefield V is still getting regular updates, DLC and modes too.
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The cheapest Xbox One bundle deals and sale prices in June 2019

Official Xbox magazine subscriptions from £15
Need help deciding what to play on your new Xbox One or Xbox One X? Xbox: The Official Magazine is the definitive source for the latest news, previews, reviews and in-depth features on all things Xbox. Plus, you’ll get regular freebies in the mag. Subscribe now from just £15.
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More Xbox One deals

Still not found your ideal Xbox One deal in our highlights of the best offers out there? Why not check out more Xbox One bundles directly from the retailers from our list below?

The cheapest Xbox One bundle deals and sale prices in June 2019

The best Xbox One X deals

The new Xbox One X is capable of displaying games in glorious HDR 4K and is the most powerful console ever made. Sadly, it has the price-tag to match too as it’s way more expensive than the Xbox One S. The comparison chart below is mainly full of prices for the new console on its own. However, we’re starting to see better offers appear online where you can get discounted (or sometimes free) games included too. For more details, head on over to our extensive Xbox One X bundles page for the best value deals.

Xbox Live Gold deals

If you’re looking to play your Xbox games online or take advantage of the free Games with Gold initiative, you’ll want to check out our cheap Xbox Live Gold deals page where’s we’ve found prices considerably cheaper than the default RRP.

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Netflix is testing a new ‘Extras’ discovery feed that apes Instagram

Netflix is testing a new ‘Extras’ discovery feed that apes Instagram

In an effort to keep up with the kids, Netflix is currently testing a new ‘Extras’ feed in its app that offers Instagram-style content, the service confirmed via Variety.

The Extras feature, which replaces the app’s current ‘Coming Soon’ tab, provides trailers, image galleries and stories based around Netflix Originals which subscribers can scroll through and share with their friends via WhatsApp, Messenger, Instagram Stories and more. 

Additionally, the Extras tab allows users to set reminders for upcoming movies and shows and also directly add content that’s already available to their lists.

“We are testing a feed of video extras in our mobile app to help fans connect more deeply with the titles they love and discover new ones to watch,” said a Netflix spokesperson, further stating that, “these tests typically vary in length of time and by region, and may not become permanent.”

At present, the Extras tab is only available to a small subset of users, however, if your Netflix app has recently been updated, you may already have access to the new feature. 

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YouTube bans videos that promote superiority and discrimination

YouTube bans videos that promote superiority and discrimination

Google is engaged in an ongoing battle against the misuse of its YouTube video platform, with the tech giant changing its policies around what content is allowed on its service on a semi-regular basis.

The latest amendment to what’s known as YouTube’s “hate speech policy” specifically prohibits “videos alleging that a group is superior in order to justify discrimination, segregation or exclusion based on qualities like age, gender, race, caste, religion, sexual orientation or veteran status.”

The YouTube blog post announcing this policy change points at “videos that promote or glorify Nazi ideology” as a specific example of content that will be banned, citing it as “inherently discriminatory”.

On top of this metric, YouTube videos that feature “content denying that well-documented violent events, like the Holocaust or the shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary, took place”, will also be removed.

Here’s how Google will punish users that are deemed to have any content on their channels that violates the aforementioned hate speech policy:

“If your content violates this policy, we’ll remove the content and send you an email to let you know. If this is the first time you’ve posted content that violates our Community Guidelines, you’ll get a warning with no penalty to your channel.”

“If it’s not, we’ll issue a strike against your channel. Your channel will be terminated if you receive 3 strikes. If we think your content comes close to hate speech, we may limit YouTube features available for that content.”

Ongoing struggle

Google first announced a tougher stance on terrorist, hate speech and discriminatory content in 2017, where the internet giant grappled with the reality of operating a free and open system while still being able to monitor it for harmful activity.

Since then, Google has increasingly tightened its rules on the type of content that is allowed to appear on its platforms, such as YouTube, and heightened its efforts in moderating such media.

Today, the strategy for moderation relies on removing content that explicitly breaches its policies, reducing the spread of “borderline” content (which could contain harmful misinformation, for instance) by demoting it, raising up authoritative voices by promoting them in recommended videos and such, and rewarding trusted creators with monetization. 

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Netflix Australia’s best TV series: over 60 great shows to stream in 2019

Netflix Australia’s best TV series: over 60 great shows to stream in 2019

UPDATE: The dystopian black comedy Black Mirror, which offers Twilight Zone-style cautionary tales about the misuse of technology, is back for its fifth season– find out more about it below! 

Since its arrival on Australian shores, we’ve enjoyed unfettered access to all of Netflix’s critically-lauded original shows. Not only that, users also have access to a wealth of other licensed material.

If you’re like us, you spend a good deal of your time Netflixing. Sure, Netflix also streams movies, but its television output is perhaps the reason most people have signed up for an account. There’s nothing quite like firing up Netflix and binge-watching a series at your own pace. Getting instant access to entire seasons of Stranger Things from day one is half the appeal.

This is why we’ve created the TechRadar guide to the best shows on Netflix Australia right now (in no particular order). We’ll keep this best TV show list constantly updated with the latest television shows that you should be watching on Netflix in Australia and also tell you why.

The best new TV series on Netflix Australia

Of course, the list includes Netflix Australia classics like Stranger Things, House of Cards, Making a Murderer, Black Mirror, Narcos and BoJack Horseman, but there’s so much more to binge on the service than the well-known titles. 

We’ve selected more than 60 great series worth watching over the following pages, but if you’ve watched ’em all already you can also find out what’s new on Netflix this month right here, or cut to the chase with our quick picks for the top trending shows on Netflix right now.

The following list charts the best shows that are currently trending right now on Netflix Australia. For our complete list of shows, which has been separated into genre, continue on to the next page or select your preferred genre from the drop-down list above!

1. Black Mirror

As far as dystopian fiction goes, Black Mirror is up there with the very best. Penned by Charlie Brooker, who before this was disassembling and decimating the news in his show NewsWipe, Black Mirror consists of a handful of caustic tales about the perils of technology, shady governments and human nature as a whole.

Not only has Netflix nabbed the original seven episodes of the show to stream, comprising two series and a Christmas special, but it also funded three additional seasons. Each standalone episode holds a mirror up to our society in extreme satire, with themes that are not too far from issues facing us all today: social media highs and embarrassing lows, technology going awry and new games that start to feel all-too real. Pitch-black comedy at its absolute darkest, Black Mirror is a must for tech-heads with a wicked sense of humour.

Now in its fifth season, Black Mirror has returned to Netflix three brand new episodes. Expect some seriously dark and dystopian tales with an undercurrent of pitch black comedy.

Details: 5 seasons (plus one interactive special), 3-6 episodes per season, 60 minutes per episode

2. Dead to Me

In Netflix’s pitch black comedy Dead to Me, Christina Applegate (Anchorman, Married… with Children) plays Jen, a recently widowed woman who sets out to find the truth about her husband’s death by hit and run. Of course, Jen has her own way of grieving and the outpouring of sympathy from those around her to be utterly insufferable. However, by a twist of fate, Jen starts to loosen up when she meets and befriends Judy (Linda Cardellini), a free-spirited woman who also lost someone. A dark and acerbic comedy from the makers of 2 Broke Girls and Hot in Cleveland, Dead to Me may not be everyone’s cup of tea, but it is destined to find a devoted audience who are willing to go to some uncomfortable places. 

Details: 1 season, 10 episodes per season, 30 minutes per episode

3. Chambers

In the creepy Netflix Original thriller Chambers, a young woman named Sasha (Sivan Alyra Rose) receives a heart transplant from the recently deceased girl Becky (Lilliya Scarlett Reid) and immediately senses that something is not right. After meeting with Becky’s mother, Nancy (Uma Thurman), Sasha begins seeing things that were witnessed by her heart’s previous owner, leading her to believe that she’s being haunted by Becky. To make matters worse, it quickly becomes apparent that Becky’s mum and dad are up to something seriously sinister. Guaranteed to send shivers up your spine, Chambers is heart-pounding despite its deliberate pace.

Details: 1 season, 10 episodes per season, 38-50 minutes per episode

4. Lucifer

Unceremoniously cancelled on broadcast television, the devilishly-funny series Lucifer has found a new home on Netflix where it’s received a brand new fourth season! From mega-producer Jerry Bruckheimer (Top Gun, Armageddon, Pirates of the Caribbean) and based on the Vertigo comic of the same name (the comic series was a spin-off of Neil Gaiman’s The Sandman), the series follows Lucifer Morningstar (Tom Ellis) as he abandons Hell to open a nightclub in Los Angeles and work as a consultant for the LAPD. If you haven’t watched Lucifer before, fear not — the first three seasons are also available to stream on Netflix.

 Details: 4 seasons, 13 episodes per season, 43 minutes per episode 

5. Chilling Adventures of Sabrina

Forget the ’90s TV series Sabrina the Teenage Witch, because aside from sharing character names, Chilling Adventures of Sabrina is an entirely different beast. Darker and scarier than that family-friendly take, Netflix’s version of the classic Archie Comics character owes a lot more to creator Roberto Aguirre-Sacasa’s recent comic series of the same name. Dealing head on with Satanism, demons and other dark subject matter, Chilling Adventures of Sabrina makes for a perfect companion to Riverdale (also from Aguirre-Sacasa), which tends to dabble in death and mystery, too. Of course, the show is quite fun, too, with a terrific performances from Kiernan Shipka (Mad Men) as Sabrina, Lucy Davis (Wonder Woman) as Aunt Hilda and Australia’s own Miranda Otto (Return of the King) as Aunt Zelda. Spooky and clever, Chilling Adventures of Sabrina positively ghoulish fun. 

Details: 2 seasons, 10 episodes per season (plus one holiday special), 60 minutes per episode

6. Love, Death & Robots

From the twisted minds of David Fincher (Se7en, Fight Club) and Tim Miller (Deadpool) comes Love, Death & Robots – a violence and sex-filled animated anthology series that’s strictly for adults. For years, the two visionaries attempted to bring a new adaptation of the classic Heavy Metal comics to screens, only to eventually leave the project behind due to lack of interest from all the major studios. Now, the project has been resuscitated in a new form thanks to Netflix, allowing the filmmakers to produce 18 self-contained short films, many of which are adapted from classic sci-fi and fantasy stories from authors such as Peter F. Hamilton, Alastair Reynolds, John Scalzi and more. If you’re into genre fiction involving robots, monsters and heady sci-fi themes, you’re going to adore Love, Death & Robots.

Details: 1 collection, 18 episodes, 6-17 minutes per episode

7. Queer Eye

Queer Eye is back! Taking over from where the original Fab Five left off, the new team has been put together with the same ultimate mission: to remodel individuals into the best possible version of themselves, whether it be their wardrobe, living arrangements, grooming, diet or even their confidence. We know, makeover shows are usually pretty lame, but this one is fantastic in the way that the guys really get to the emotional heart of each subject they undertake. Often, there’s a reason these men (and for the first time, a woman) have let themselves go or have put up defensive walls against the outside world. Because the Fab Five really seem to care about them, it becomes incredibly rewarding to watch them go from unhappy to full of life. Chances are you’ll cry at least once per episode. Season 3 sees the crew relocate to Kansas City, and you can expect an even more diverse group of makeover recipients this time around.

Details: 3 seasons, 8 episodes per season, 45 minutes per episode

8. Russian Doll

With its Groundhog Day-esque premise, Russian Doll sees Nadia (Natasha Lyonne) forced to relive her 36th birthday party over and over again. Though she’s killed repeatedly, there’s seemingly no end in sight for Nadia’s inescapable night, leading her to question her own sanity as she tries to find a way out. Funny and fast-paced, Russian Doll is ideal for viewers looking for something short and sweet to watch, with each episode leaving you wanting more. 

Details: 1 season, 8 episodes per season, 25 minutes per episode

9. Dirty John

Based on the hit podcast series of the same name, Dirty John tells the unnerving true story of a man who infiltrates the life of lonely single mother Debra (Connie Britton), despite extreme disapproval from her daughters. While John (Eric Bana) initially convinces Debra that he’s a dreamboat doctor who’ll make her life wonderful, things soon turn dark, with his lies and psychological manipulation eventually leading to some truly devastating consequences for the family. While the show may have a slight ‘Hallmark Channel’ vibe, Bana and Connie are exceptional in their roles. Fans of the podcast and disturbing true crime stories are sure to enjoy Dirty John.

Details: 1 season, 8 episodes per season, 45 minutes per episode

10. Riverdale

Set aside any pre-conceived notions that you might have about a ‘sexy Archie’ series and get ready for one of the most addictive new shows of the moment with Riverdale. First things first — this ain’t your grandpappy’s Archie show. A modern day re-imagining of the beloved comics franchise that has spanned almost eight decades, this Twin Peaks-inspired version of Riverdale is fraught with murder, deception and small town scandal. Famous characters like Jughead, Veronica, Betty and even Josie and the Pussycats are all present and accounted for, only with a decidedly millennial twist. The first season followed the murder of star quarterback (and most popular kid in school) Jason Blossom, and the mystery surrounding it. This was followed by the arrival of a Zodiac-style serial killer who terrorised Riverdale from behind a black hood. In the third season, the gang must contend with a forbidden role-playing game called Griffons and Gargoyles that’s causing people in town to die, as well as a cult-like community called The Farm that’s putting everyone under its spell.With new episodes fast-tracked from the US every Thursday, your only problem will the seven day wait in-between. 

Details: 3 seasons, 13-22 episodes per season, 42 minutes per episode

Want to know more about Netflix’s take on binging? Watch our very own Jon Porter live on the couch discussing his time at Netflix HQ!

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The Logic Behind Sexercise: 12 Sex Exercise The Workout



The Logic Behind Sexercise: 12 Sex Exercise The Workout

Athens escort and Athens escorts do regular exercise to keep fit and sexy. They are always prepared to whatever a man might ask.

  • Upper body strength. Building the muscles of the shoulders, triceps, chest, and back will make it easier to support your body weight for longer periods of time when you are on top or supporting her body weight during moves like standing sex positions which are great workouts for you.
  • Flexibility. A cramp at an inopportune time will ruin the mood. By stretching and lengthening your muscles regularly, you’ll be more likely to move into more challenging positions. Try the hip raise with reach in the video above.
  • Core power. The abdominals and low back muscles are used for the thrusting motions of sex. You won’t be attempting any of those moves if you are laid up with lower back pain. Finnish researchers say that people with weak core muscles are more than three times more likely to suffer from lower back pain. Strong abs also girdle your belly.
  • Aerobic stamina. Being out of shape is NOT sexy or healthy! If you are huffing and puffing you won’t have the stamina to maintain your rhythm during sex. Shaping up with endurance workouts like cardio, jogging, swimming, interval training sessions or resistance-training circuits can prevent weaker muscles from quitting too soon.
  • Control your orgasm. While not strictly an exercise routine, one way to keep yourself “in shape” is to work on extending the time you can before reaching orgasm.  Few things will let your partner down more than you finishing too soon, so the longer you can go before finishing, the better.  You can work on this through practice masturbation: masturbate until you are close to ejaculating and then ease off.  Build yourself up again and then again stop yourself. Doing this repeatedly will build up your “resistance” to ejaculating too soon.”  Women if it’s you that have the problem of reaching orgasm too soon, try this same technique of masturbating to build up your resistance, bringing yourself near orgasm then easing off, building back up then stopping again, this is another great sex workouts for you.


Missionary Sex Exercise workouts for you

In a way, the missionary position is the physical equivalent of the old “I’m busy washing my hair” excuse — it’s the brush-off used when you’re lazy, tired, or just not that interested. But despite being one of the most passive contortions for a woman, man-on-top can still provide a pretty good workout.

“It depends on how enthusiastic you are about it, but missionary can be great for the core muscles,” says Stacy Berman, a New York City-based certified fitness trainer and founder of Stacy’s Boot Camp. “If your partner is thrusting toward you, you want to have an equal and opposite thrust back, and that requires a lot of core strength. It actually will start burning.”

Patti Britton, author of The Art of Sex Coaching and immediate past president of the American Association of Sexuality Educators, Counselors and Therapists, agrees that you’ll definitely be feeling it in your abs. “You can strengthen your core by focusing on pelvic lifting using your core, not your lower back. That’s where women tend to get stuck — they tend to rely on their lower back to give them propulsion.” (The risk of which isn’t a joke, either. Worst-case scenario, you could throw out your back or sustain some other injury — not exactly a bedroom turn-on.)

Missionary position can also provide a good buttworkout. “The more she does buttock squeezes, the more she could accentuate her riding toward him to give herself a good glute workout,” Britton says.


1. Crouching Sex Exercise

I don’t know about you, but I hate doing squats. They’re just not fun. Doing squats in bed with your spouse, on the other hand, is really fun. Do a simple touch-your-toes stretch before getting started. Simply squat on top of your partner while they’re laying flat. Use your arms and legs to prop yourself up and down. Be careful though – we don’t want you to hurt your back. Do this slowly and watch your form so you don’t strain anything. Take breaks if you start to get really tired. Some of us aren’t used to this position and it takes some practice to master.

2. Straight-Legged on His Shoulders Sex Exercise

Stretch your legs. Next time your partner is on top and you’re laying on your back, take your legs and prop them right on each of their shoulders. This will not only stretch out your legs and help them tone during love-making, your abs will also feel some tension. Try to focus on your form and arch your back when possible – this will help tone your abs in the process.

3. Doggy-Style Sex Exercise

Like with the missionary position, penetration-from-behind sex engages the woman’s core because she has to stabilize herself on all fours, says Berman. You’ll also be working your quads and glutes to help brace yourself against the impact.

However, you can use a modified position to get a good arm workout, too. Rather than having your hands flat on the bed, “if the woman has her hands on a wall in front of her and sort of uses her upper body to help thrust, that would be a good shoulder and upper body workout,” Berman says.

4. Cowgirl Sex Exercise

With a standard cowgirl position, the lower part of the woman’s legs are braced on the bed or floor, which will engage her butt and core.

“Much like riding a horse, she’s going to flex her lower abs and pelvic muscles,” says Yvonne K. Fulbright, a certified sex educator and author of Touch Me There! “Pressing into the man’s abs and sides with her quads or calves can engage those muscles as well.”

Modifying the cowgirl position can work additional muscle groups. “To make it even more intense, she can come up onto her feet, almost like a squat over him. That’s all butt, legs, and hips,” says Berman. “If she gets up onto her feet and leans onto her hands, she’ll also have to use her upper body to balance.”

5. Lotus Sex Exercise

Like the missionary position, the lotus sitting position is one of the more passive sex positions. However, many of the same muscles worked in the cowgirl position are going to be used in this contortion: the core is engaged to stabilize the body, and the glutes are worked during thrusting.

6. Standing Sex Exercise

Standing is one of the more challenging positions because often the woman has to allow her partner to lift her in some way, says Britton.

If the man and woman are facing each other, core and upper-leg strength comes into play: if she’s standing on one leg, those leg muscles are worked to keep her upright, and core muscles are engaged to keep her balanced. If she’s wrapping both legs around her partner, she’ll need good arm strength to hold onto her partner. And regardless which one of these contortions she’s in, “she has to have stamina if she’s standing,” says Britton.

If the man and woman are facing the same direction, the same muscles engaged in doggy-style are used: she’ll work her core for balance, and her arms can be worked if she’s bracing herself against a wall or headboard and using them to help thrust.


7. Scissors Sex Exercise

According to Britton, the scissors position is the least strenuous of all — there’s no suspending of body weight, and it generally makes for gentler and slower penetration (which would explain why it’s often recommended for pregnant women). “Scissors is for when you’re tired, not for being an acrobat in bed,” she says. Still, that’s not to say you won’t still be engaging muscle groups.

With your legs intercrossed with your partner’s, there’s limited movement for both the man and women, so a lot of inner-thigh strength and core stabilization will be at work. “When you squeeze your inner thighs, the core will naturally contract as well,” Berman explains.

8. Bridge Sex Exercise

With the bridge, the woman is facing upward, using all four limbs to hold her body weight off the bed. All our sex experts agree: this pose is not for the weak.

“This is a highly advanced position,” Britton says. “She needs to stabilize herself so as he’s thrusting in and out, she doesn’t crash.”

Even if you pile a tower of pillows under your back to help support your weight (which Britton recommends), you’ll still definitely be working your buttocks and inner-thigh muscles, says Fulbright. “This is going to work all of it — her biceps, triceps, abs, glutes, quads, calves. Unless she’s really strong, she shouldn’t expect to hold this position for long.”

Adds Berman, “If you’re going from cowgirl to this position, your butt will start burning after five minutes.”

9. Arch Sex Exercise

The arch is a modified bridge pose, with a woman resting on her shoulders while using her legs to hold her lower body off the bed.

“In many ways, she’s using the same muscle groups as for the bridge, only working them harder because she’s using less to hold herself up,” says Fulbright. Your core muscles, glutes, and thighs are all worked in the arch. However, Britton considers this a much safer position than the bridge: “There’s no strain on the neck or shoulder region, which can seize up.”

10. Lunges Sex Exercise

Sure, you might hate doing lunges at the gym while your personal trainer named Cheetah is yelling at you to do “just five more,” but you might not mind them so much in the bedroom.

Like the name suggests, the lunge position has the woman sitting on top of the man, with one leg planted in front of her and the other leg extended behind her in between the man’s legs. This move is good for the quad, front of the leg, hamstring, core, and butt, says Berman. “It’ll also work the deep stabilizer muscle of the leg in the front — both inner and outer thigh — as well as stretch the back leg’s hip flexor,” she says. “That’s great because most people sit at desk all day, and this way you can stretch it out.”

11. Wheelbarrow Sex Exercise

Arms and chest. A good position to get you & your partner going is by assuming the wheelbarrow position with her as the wheelbarrow and the man as the wheelbarrow driver. Insert from behind and start ploughing away. Since the woman is using her arms and chest to hold her body up while the man holds up her legs & pounds away, the muscles of the arm & chest will develop and strengthen.

Really any favorite sex position you have can be turned into a great intense & intimate ‘Sexercise’ routine with the right form and enthusiasm put into it!

12. Advanced Sex Exercise ‘Sexercise’ Moves

So how about skipping the gym today and spending some time in bed getting to know your spouse better and more intimately while you tighten, tone and strengthen those muscles and sweat away the calories together with sex exercise! Remember: the more focus you put into these positions the more effective the actual ‘work out’ will be! Athens escort and Athens escorts have rare time for gym, they practice with their customers.

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